Alterations of Erythrocyte Function

Chapter 29: Alterations of Erythrocyte Function

Study Questions

In some anemias the erythrocytes are present in various sizes and shapes. What are the terms for these conditions?

What is the major physiologic manifestation of anemia?

What causes the paresthesia that occurs in vitamin B12 deficiency anemia?

How does the body compensate for anemia?

What anemia is the most common type of macrocytic-normochromic anemia?

What synthesis process is altered by deficiencies in folate and vitamin B12?

Which anemia is characterized by defective secretion of intrinsic factor, which is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12?

After a person has a subtotal gastrectomy for chronic gastritis, what type of anemia would result?

Atrophy of gastric mucosal cells results in pernicious anemia because of what dysfunction?

A woman complains of chronic gastritis, fatigue, weight loss, and tingling in her fingers. Laboratory findings show low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and a high mean corpuscular volume. These findings are consistent with which type of anemia?

Untreated pernicious anemia is fatal, usually because of what organ failure?

Which anemia produces small, pale erythrocytes?

A man has fatigue, weakness, and dyspnea. His conjunctiva and palms are pale. His nails appear brittle, thin, and concave, and he has sores at the corners of his mouth. Considering this information, the nurse suspects that this patient probably has which type of anemia?

What is the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia?

A man has cheilosis, stomatitis, and painful ulceration of the buccal mucosa and mouth. He complains of dysphagia and watery diarrhea. These clinical manifestations are indicative of which type of anemia?

What type of genetic disorder is sideroblastic anemia?

Clinical manifestations of mild to moderate splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, bronze-colored skin, and cardiac dysrhythmias are indicative of which anemia?

What impact does sideroblastic anemia most likely have on plasma levels of iron?

In aplastic anemia, pancytopenia develops as a result of the:

What is the pathophysiologic process of aplastic anemia?

Which is a characteristic of warm antibody immunohemolytic anemia?

In hemolytic anemia, when does jaundice occur?

Erythrocyte life span less than 120 days, ineffective bone marrow response to erythropoietin, and altered iron metabolism describe the pathophysiology of which type of anemia?

Anemia of chronic disease is a mild to moderate anemia associated with chronic infections, chronic noninfectious inflammatory diseases, and malignancies. What chronic diseases are commonly associated with this anemia?

Symptoms of polycythemia vera are mainly the result of what process?

Chapter 30: Alterations of Leukocyte, Lymphoid, and Hemostatic Function

Study Questions

What change is seen in leukocytes during an allergic disorder (type I) often caused by asthma, hay fever, and drug reactions?

In infectious mononucleosis (IM), what does the Monospot test detect?

A 20-year-old is diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis (IM). What are the classic clinical manifestations?

Describe acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)?

Early detection of acute leukemia would include recognizing what symptoms?

Describe chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)?

Describe chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)?

Which electrolyte imbalance accompanies multiple myeloma (MM)?

RS cells represent malignant transformation and proliferation of what cells?

Local signs and symptoms of Hodgkin disease–related lymphadenopathy result from what dysfunctions?

What virus is associated with Burkitt lymphoma in African children?

A patient with a bleeding disorder has a red-purple discoloration caused by diffuse hemorrhage into skin tissues. The nurse documents this discoloration as what?

Describe heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT).

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a(n) _____ condition in adults and a(n) _____ condition in children.

What is the most common cause of vitamin K deficiency?

Which disorder is described as an unregulated release of thrombin with subsequent fibrin formation and accelerated fibrinolysis?

In DIC, what are indications of microvascular thrombosis?

Chapter 31: Alterations of Hematologic Function in Children

Study Questions

What is the cause of polycythemia in a fetus?

Why does fetal hemoglobin have a greater affinity for oxygen than adult hemoglobin?

Which blood cells are elevated at birth, but decrease to adult levels the first year of life?

What is the most common cause of anemia from insufficient erythropoiesis in children?

How does HDN cause acquired congenital hemolytic anemia?

Define Erythroblastosis fetalis.

An infant’s hemoglobin must fall below ___ g/dl before signs of pallor, tachycardia, and systolic murmurs occur.

Describe the blood type/Rh factor of the mother in a newborn with hemolytic disease?

Why during HDN, does the newborn develops hyperbilirubinemia after birth, but not in utero?

What is the name of the disorder in which levels of bilirubin remain excessively high in the newborn and are deposited in the brain?

Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is inherited as which type of disorder?

G6PD and sickle cell disease share 2 common triggers. What are they?

Hemoglobin S (Hb S) is formed in sickle cell disease as a result of a(n):

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is inherited as which type of disorder?

Which type of anemia that occurs as a result of thalassemia?

The alpha- and beta-thalassemias are inherited as which type of disorder?

Hemophilia B is caused by clotting factor _____ deficiency.

Hemophilia A is inherited as which type of disorder?

What disorder is an autosomal dominant inherited hemorrhagic disease?

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune process involving antibodies against:

Which disorder results in decreased erythrocytes and platelets with changes in leukocytes and has clinical manifestations of pallor, fatigue, petechiae, purpura, bleeding, and fever?

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