# Application And Interpretation Of Public Health Data

MODULE 1

DQ1

Statistics is an important component of public health. Explain the relevance of statistics in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of a health promotion intervention. How do you envision using statistics in your current or future career?

DQ2

Describe the difference between quantitative and qualitative methods. Explain how each are used in public health.

RESOURCES

Read Chapter 1 in Using and Interpreting Statistics: A Practical Text for the Behavioral, Social, and Health Sciences.

View “The Human Insights Missing From Big Data,” by Wang (2016), located on the TED website.

URL: https://www.ted.com/talks/tricia_wang_the_human_insights_missing_from_big_data

Read “Statistics and Public Health at CDC,” by Sieber, Green, and Williamson (2006), located on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.

URL:https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su5502a9.htm

View “Why You Should Love Statistics,” by Smith (2017), located on the YouTube website.

View the following terms in The Visual Learner: Statistics media.

Statistics
Data
Continuous Data
Discrete Data
Interval Level
Ordinal Data
Nominal Data
Population
Sample
Parameter
Statistic
URL: http://lc.gcumedia.com/hlt362v/the-visual-learner/the-visual-learner-v2.1.html

Read “Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Mixed Methods Research – Challenges and Benefits,” by Almalki, from Journal of Education and Learning (2016).

URL: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1110464.pdf

SPSS Statistics will be used to complete some of the case study assignments for this course. Refer to “Using Citrix Workspace” in the GCU Technical Support Help Center for assistance with installing the Citrix Workspace App and preparing for SPSS files.

URL: https://support.gcu.edu/hc/en-us/articles/201144000-Using-Citrix-Workspace

After Citrix has been installed on your computer, you may access SPSS Statistics at https://myapps.gcu.edu.

Read “Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for Public Health,” from PH717 Module 1B – Descriptive Tools: Descriptive Epidemiology and Descriptive Statistics, located on the Boston University Medical Campus, School of Public Health website (2019).

URL: https://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/PH717-QuantCore/PH717-Module1B-DescriptiveStudies_and_Statistics/PH717-Module1B-DescriptiveStudies_and_Statistics9.html

MODULE 2

DQ1

Frequency distributions can be graphed with bar charts, histograms or polygons. Choose one variable from the “Health Behavior Data Set” and discuss which type of graph is appropriate and why. Refer to section 2.3 in the Using and Interpreting Statistics: A Practical Text for the Behavioral, Social, and Health Sciences textbook as needed for assistance.

DQ2

The mean, median, and mode are measures of central tendency. Explain why these measures are crucial to public health data analysis.

STUDY MATERIALS

Read Chapters 2, 3, and 5 (section 5.1) in Using and Interpreting Statistics: A Practical Text for the Behavioral, Social, and Health Sciences. URL:

http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/macmillan-learning/2016/using-and-interpreting-statistics_a-practical-text-for-the-behavioral-social-and-health-sciences_ebook_3e.php

Read “Data Collection for Program Evaluation,” located on the Northwest Center for Public Health Practice website (2019). URL: https://www.nwcphp.org/docs/data_collection/data_collection_toolkit.pdf

Read “Statistical Methods Used in the Public Health Literature and Implications for Training of Public Health Professionals,” by Hayat, Powell, Johnson, and Cadwell, from PLoS One (2017). URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5462407/

View the following tutorials from the SPSS Tutorials media.

Frequency Tables and Histograms
Descriptive Statistics
URL:https://www.gcumedia.com/lms-resources/student-success-center/v3.1/#/media-element/CHSS;CONHCP/1DF486B2-8C58-E811-B595-005056BDD6DE

View the following terms in The Visual Learner: Statistics media.

Confounding
Histogram
View the following calculations in The Visual Learner: Statistics media.

Frequency Distribution
Measure of Center “Mean”
Measure of Center “Median”
Measure of Center “Mode”
Range and Standard Deviation
Variance
URL: http://lc.gcumedia.com/hlt362v/the-visual-learner/the-visual-learner-v2.1.html

You will use Microsoft Excel for your assignment, and you will need to enable to Data Analysis ToolPak add-in. The “Enabling Data Analysis ToolPak” guide located on the GCU Technical Support website, contains instructions for the add-in for both PC and Mac.

You will use Microsoft Excel for your assignment, and you will need to enable to Data Analysis ToolPak add-in. The “Enabling Data Analysis ToolPak” guide located on the GCU Technical Support website, contains instructions for the add-in for both PC and Mac. URL: https://support.gcu.edu/hc/en-us/articles/360039768454-Excel-Add-ins

View “The Beginner’s Guide to Excel – Excel Basics Tutorial,” by Technology for Teachers and Students (2017), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rwbho0CgEAE&feature=youtu.be

MODULE 3

DQ1

Summarize the six steps of hypothesis testing. Propose a scenario in which hypothesis testing is applied to public health data.

DQ2

Compare and contrast descriptive and inferential statistics. Discuss why both descriptive and inferential statistics are used in the analysis of public health data.

STUDY MATERIALS

Read Chapters 6 in Using and Interpreting Statistics: A Practical Text for the Behavioral, Social, and Health Sciences.

URL:http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/macmillan-learning/2016/using-and-interpreting-statistics_a-practical-text-for-the-behavioral-social-and-health-sciences_ebook_3e.php.

Read “Significance,” by Frey, from The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation (2018).

URL: https://methods.sagepub.com/reference/the-sage-encyclopedia-of-educational-research-measurement-and-evaluation/i18904.xml

Read “Chapter 12 Descriptive Statistics,” by McGregor, from Understanding and Evaluating Research: A Critical Guide (2018).

URL: https://methods-sagepub-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/book/understanding-and-evaluating-research/i2843.xml

View “Statistical Significance, the Null Hypothesis and P-Values Defined and Explained in One Minute,” by One Minute Economics (2018), located on the YouTube website.

View “SPSS for Beginners 1: Introduction,” by Research Design (2011), located on the YouTube website.

View the following tutorials from the SPSS Tutorials media.

Frequency Tables and Histograms
Descriptive Statistics
URL: https://www.gcumedia.com/lms-resources/student-success-center/v3.1/#/media-element/CHSS;CONHCP/1DF486B2-8C58-E811-B595-005056BDD6DE

SPSS Statistics will be used to complete some of the case study assignments for this course. Refer to “Using Citrix Workspace” in the GCU Technical Support Help Center for assistance with installing the Citrix Workspace App and preparing for SPSS files.

URL: https://support.gcu.edu/hc/en-us/articles/201144000-Using-Citrix-Workspace

After Citrix has been installed on your computer, you may access SPSS Statistics at https://myapps.gcu.edu.

View “Introduction to SPSS,” by GCU Academics – Nursing (2020). Use this resource to assist you in completing the topic assignment.

URL: https://www.gcumedia.com/lms-resources/student-success-center/v3.1/#/media-element/CONHCP/62DF3BAF-5A03-EB11-9111-005056BDE9D6

MODULE 4

DQ1

Correlation is a common statistic to measure a general linear relationship between two variables. Explain why correlation does not equal causation.

DQ2

Explain the differences between parametric and nonparametric tests. How do you determine if a parametric or nonparametric test should be used when analyzing data?

STUDY MATERIALS

Read Chapters 13 and 15in Using and Interpreting Statistics: A Practical Text for the Behavioral, Social, and Health Sciences.

URL: http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/macmillan-learning/2016/using-and-interpreting-statistics_a-practical-text-for-the-behavioral-social-and-health-sciences_ebook_3e.php

Read “Correlation of Sleep Quality With Physical Activity and Memory Among Young Adults,” by Dubey, Tiwari, and Siddiqui, from Indian Journal of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy (2019).

Read “The Role of Community-Wide Wearing of Face Mask for Control of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Epidemic Due to SARS-CoV-2,” by Cheng et al., from Journal of Infection (2020).

URL: https://www-sciencedirect-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/science/article/pii/S0163445320302358?via%3Dihub

Explore the “Adolescent and School Health” page located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.

URL: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/

Utilize topics from the Loom Help Center website for assistance on installing Loom software and software usage.

URL: https://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/opentest-inc/2018/loom_1e.php

View “Conducting a Pearson Correlation and Chi-Square Test in SPSS,” by GCU Academics – Nursing (2020). Use this resource to assist you in completing the topic assignment.

MODULE 5

DQ1

Compare the various types of ANOVA by discussing when each is most appropriate for use. Include specific examples to illustrate the appropriate use of each test and how interaction is assessed using ANOVA.

DQ2

When analyzing public health data, describe the steps you would take to determine what statistical test to conduct. Discuss the impact of data type on test selection.

STUDY MATERIALS

Read Chapters 7-12 in Using and Interpreting Statistics: A Practical Text for the Behavioral, Social, and Health Sciences.

URL:http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/macmillan-learning/2016/using-and-interpreting-statistics_a-practical-text-for-the-behavioral-social-and-health-sciences_ebook_3e.php

View the following tutorials from the SPSS Tutorials media.

One-Sample t-Test
Matched Pairs t-Test
Independent Samples t-Test
One-Way ANOVA
Two-Way ANOVA-Between Groups
URL:https://www.gcumedia.com/lms-resources/student-success-center/v3.1/#/media-element/CHSS;CONHCP/1DF486B2-8C58-E811-B595-005056BDD6DE

View the following calculations in The Visual Learner: Statistics media.

Introduction to t-test
One Sample t-Test
Two Sample t-Test
One Way ANOVA
Effect Size One Way ANOVA
Two Way ANOVA
Effect Size Two Way ANOVA
URL: http://lc.gcumedia.com/hlt362v/the-visual-learner/the-visual-learner-v2.1.html

Read “Changing the Face of Health Education via Health Interventions: Social Ecological Perspectives on New Media Technologies and Elementary Nutrition Education,” by Bissell, Baker, Pember, Zhang, and Yang, from Health Communication (2019).

URL: https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/10410236.2018.1507659

Read “Can a Community-Led Intervention Offering Social Support and Health Education Improve Maternal Health? A Repeated Measures Evaluation of the PACT Project Run in a Socially Deprived London Borough,” from Brown, Luderowski, Namusisi-Riley, Moore-Shelley, and Bolton, from International Journal of Environmental and Public Health (2020).

URL: https://search-proquest-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/docview/2393647115?accountid=7374

Read “Choosing the Correct Statistical Test in SAS, STATA, SPSS and R,” by Leeper, from Choosing the Right Statistic, located on the UCLA Institute for Digital Research and Education Statistical Consulting website.

URL: https://stats.idre.ucla.edu/other/mult-pkg/whatstat/

Read “Variables Associated With Job Satisfaction Among Mental Health Professionals,” by Fleur, Grenier, Bamvita, and Farand, from PLoS ONE (2018).

Examine the general information about the “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System” survey, located on the Adolescent and School Health (2018) page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.

URL: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyYouth/data/yrbs/index.htm

Review the documentation and questionnaires provided in “YRBSS Data and Documentation” (2018), located on the National YRBS Datasets and Documentation page on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.

URL: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/data.htm

Read “2015 YRBS Data User’s Guide” (2016), located on the Adolescent and School Health page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.

URL: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/pdf/2015/2015_yrbs-data-users_guide_smy_combined.pdf

Read the “2015 State and Local Youth Risk Behavior Survey” (YRBS), located on the Adolescent and School Health page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.

URL: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/questionnaires.htm

Utilize topics from the Loom Help Center website for assistance on installing Loom software and software usage.

URL: https://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/opentest-inc/2018/loom_1e.php

View “Conducting a t-Test and ANOVA in SPSS,” by GCU Academics – Nursing (2020). Use this resource to assist you in completing the topic assignment.

URL: https://www.gcumedia.com/lms-resources/student-success-center/?mediaElement=6616F929-5B03-EB11-9111-005056BDE9D6

MODULE 6

DQ1

Given the limited amount of statistical calculations required by some public health positions, explain why it is important for you to know how to utilize appropriate software to analyze public health data. Support your ideas with reasons, facts, and examples.

DQ2

Discuss three strengths of the linear regression? Identify a peer-reviewed study that uses linear regression in its analysis. Explain why linear regression was used and discuss one challenge in interpreting the results. Include the permalink with your citation.

STUDY MATERIALS

Read Chapter 14 and 16 in Using and Interpreting Statistics: A Practical Text for the Behavioral, Social, and Health Sciences.

URL: http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/macmillan-learning/2016/using-and-interpreting-statistics_a-practical-text-for-the-behavioral-social-and-health-sciences_ebook_3e.php

View the Linear Correlation tutorial in the SPSS Tutorials media.

URL: https://www.gcumedia.com/lms-resources/student-success-center/v3.1/#/media-element/CHSS;CONHCP/1DF486B2-8C58-E811-B595-005056BDD6DE

View the calculations for “Linear Regression” in The Visual Learner: Statistics media.

URL: http://lc.gcumedia.com/hlt362v/the-visual-learner/the-visual-learner-v2.1.html

Read “How to Control Confounding Effects by Statistical Analysis,” by Pourhoseingholi, Baghestani, and Vahedi, from Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench (2012).

URL: https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.lopes.idm.oclc.org/pmc/articles/PMC4017459/

Read “Variables Associated With Job Satisfaction Among Mental Health Professionals,” by Fleury, Grenier, Bamvita and Farand, from PLoS ONE (2018).

MODULE 7

DQ1

Describe three methods for qualitative data collection and discuss an example of when each method would be used.

DQ2

Describe the process of coding qualitative data. Identify the distinguishing factors between inductive and deductive coding.

STUDY MATERIALS

Read “Comparison Between Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research,” in Chapter 6 and read Chapter 8 in GCU Doctoral Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Research Concepts.

This textbook references an assigned dissertation. You are not required to complete a dissertation for this course.

URL: http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/grand-canyon-university/2015/gcu-doctoral-research_quantitative-and-qualitative-research-concepts_ebook_1e.php

Read “A Review of Qualitative Data Analysis Practices in Health Education and Health Behavior Research,” by Raskind et al., from Health Education and Behavior (2019), available as authors manuscript from PubMed Central (PMC), located on the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website.

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386595/pdf/nihms-990092.pdf.

Review “Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for Public Health,” from PH717 Module 1B – Descriptive Tools: Descriptive Epidemiology and Descriptive Statistics, located on the Boston University Medical Campus, School of Public Health website (2019).

URL: https://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/PH717-QuantCore/PH717-Module1B-DescriptiveStudies_and_Statistics/PH717-Module1B-DescriptiveStudies_and_Statistics9.html

Read “Lessons Learned in Promoting Evidence-Based Public Health: Perspectives From Managers in State Public Health Departments,” by Allen et al., from Journal of Community Health (2018).

Read “Section 15: Qualitative Methods to Assess Community Issues,” from “Chapter 3: Assessing Community Needs and Resources,” of the Community Assessment toolkit, located on the Community Tool Box website.

URL: https://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/assessment/assessing-community-needs-and

Read “Focus Groups Inform a Mobile Health Intervention to Promote Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and Engagement in Physical Activity Among People Living With HIV,” by Henry, Quintana, Moore, Garcia, and Montoya, from BMC Public Health (2019).

URL: https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-018-6386-5

MODULE 8

DQ1

Refer back to your response to Topic 1 DQ 1: “Statistics is an important component of public health. Explain the relevance of statistics in the planning, implementation and evaluation of a health promotion intervention. How do you envision using statistics in your current or future career?” After completing the course, how has your vision changed regarding the role statistics will have in your current or future career?

DQ2

Discuss an ethical challenge you might face as a researcher when collecting and analyzing data from human subjects. What is an IRB and why is it necessary?

STUDY MATERIALS

Review Chapter 16 in Using and Interpreting Statistics: A Practical Text for the Behavioral, Social, and Health Sciences.

URL:http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/macmillan-learning/2016/using-and-interpreting-statistics_a-practical-text-for-the-behavioral-social-and-health-sciences_ebook_3e.php

View “Talk Nerdy to Me,” by Marshall (2012), located on the TED website.

URL: https://www.ted.com/talks/melissa_marshall_talk_nerdy_to_me

Read “Conducting High-Value Secondary Dataset Analysis: An Introductory Guide and Resources,” by Smith et al., from Journal of General Internal Medicine (2011).

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3138974/

Read “Successful Scientific Writing and Publishing: A Step-by-Step Approach,” By Iskander, Wolicki, Leeb, and Siegel, from Tools and Techniques (2018), located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.

URL: https://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2018/18_0085.htm

Read “The Belmont Report,” by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (1979), located on the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) website.

URL: https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/sites/default/files/the-belmont-report-508c_FINAL.pdf

Read “IRB FAQs” on the IRB Institutional Review Board, located on the Grand Canyon University website.

URL: https://cirt.gcu.edu/irb_documents/irbstudentresearchersfaqsdocx

Week10 Patho Assign 6501