Assignment: Evidence-Based Project, Part 3: Critical Appraisal Of Research

Realtors rely on detailed property appraisals—conducted using appraisal tools—to assign market values to houses and other properties. These values are then presented to buyers and sellers to set prices and initiate offers.

Research appraisal is not that different. The critical appraisal process utilizes formal appraisal tools to assess the results of research to determine value to the context at hand. Evidence-based practitioners often present these findings to make the case for specific courses of action.

In this Assignment, you will use an appraisal tool to conduct a critical appraisal of published research. You will then present the results of your efforts.

To Prepare:

Reflect on the four peer-reviewed articles you selected in Module 2 and the four systematic reviews (or other filtered high- level evidence) you selected in Module 3.
Reflect on the four peer-reviewed articles you selected in Module 2 and analyzed in Module 3.
Review and download the Critical Appraisal Tool Worksheet Template provided in the Resources.
The Assignment (Evidence-Based Project)

Part 3A: Critical Appraisal of Research

Conduct a critical appraisal of the four peer-reviewed articles you selected by completing the Evaluation Table within the Critical Appraisal Tool Worksheet Template. Choose a total of four peer- reviewed articles that you selected related to your clinical topic of interest in Module 2 and Module 3.

Note: You can choose any combination of articles from Modules 2 and 3 for your Critical Appraisal. For example, you may choose two unfiltered research articles from Module 2 and two filtered research articles (systematic reviews) from Module 3 or one article from Module 2 and three articles from Module 3. You can choose any combination of articles from the prior Module Assignments as long as both modules and types of studies are represented.

Part 3B: Critical Appraisal of Research

Based on your appraisal, in a 1-2-page critical appraisal, suggest a best practice that emerges from the research you reviewed. Briefly explain the best practice, justifying your proposal with APA citations of the research.

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Evaluation Table

Use this document to complete the evaluation table requirement of the Module 4 Assessment, Evidence-Based Project, Part 4A: Critical Appraisal of Research

Full APA formatted citation of selected article.

Article #1

Article #2

Article #3

Article #4

Evidence Level *

(I, II, or III)

Conceptual Framework

Describe the theoretical basis for the study (If there is not one mentioned in the article, say that here).**

Design/Method

Describe the design and how the study was carried out (In detail, including inclusion/exclusion criteria).

Sample/Setting

The number and characteristics of

patients, attrition rate, etc.

Major Variables Studied

List and define dependent and independent variables

Measurement

Identify primary statistics used to answer clinical questions (You need to list the actual tests done).

Data Analysis Statistical or

Qualitative findings

(You need to enter the actual numbers determined by the statistical tests or qualitative data).

Findings and Recommendations

General findings and recommendations of the research

Appraisal and Study Quality

Describe the general worth of this research to practice.

What are the strengths and limitations of study?

What are the risks associated with implementation of the suggested practices or processes detailed in the research?

What is the feasibility of use in your practice?

Key findings

Outcomes

General Notes/Comments

*These levels are from the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice: Evidence Level and Quality Guide

· Level I

Experimental, randomized controlled trial (RCT), systematic review RTCs with or without meta-analysis

· Level II

Quasi-experimental studies, systematic review of a combination of RCTs and quasi-experimental studies, or quasi-experimental studies only, with or without meta-analysis

· Level III

Nonexperimental, systematic review of RCTs, quasi-experimental with/without meta-analysis, qualitative, qualitative systematic review with/without meta-synthesis

· Level IV

Respected authorities’ opinions, nationally recognized expert committee/consensus panel reports based on scientific evidence

· Level V

Literature reviews, quality improvement, program evaluation, financial evaluation, case reports, nationally recognized expert(s) opinion based on experiential evidence

**Note on Conceptual Framework

· The following information is from Walden academic guides which helps explain conceptual frameworks and the reasons they are used in research. Here is the link https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/library/conceptualframework

· Researchers create theoretical and conceptual frameworks that include a philosophical and methodological model to help design their work. A formal theory provides context for the outcome of the events conducted in the research. The data collection and analysis are also based on the theoretical and conceptual framework.

· As stated by Grant and Osanloo (2014), “Without a theoretical framework, the structure and vision for a study is unclear, much like a house that cannot be constructed without a blueprint. By contrast, a research plan that contains a theoretical framework allows the dissertation study to be strong and structured with an organized flow from one chapter to the next.”

· Theoretical and conceptual frameworks provide evidence of academic standards and procedure. They also offer an explanation of why the study is pertinent and how the researcher expects to fill the gap in the literature.

· Literature does not always clearly delineate between a theoretical or conceptual framework. With that being said, there are slight differences between the two.

References

The Johns Hopkins Hospital/Johns Hopkins University (n.d.). Johns Hopkins nursing dvidence-based practice: appendix C: evidence level and quality guide. Retrieved October 23, 2019 from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/evidence-based-practice/_docs/appendix_c_evidence_level_quality_guide.pdf

Grant, C., & Osanloo, A. (2014). Understanding, Selecting, and Integrating a Theoretical Framework in Dissertation Research: Creating the Blueprint for Your” House”. Administrative Issues Journal: Education, Practice, and Research, 4(2), 12-26.

Walden University Academic Guides (n.d.). Conceptual & theoretical frameworks overview. Retrieved October 23, 2019 from https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/library/conceptualframework

Critical Appraisal Tool Worksheet Template

© 2018 Laureate Education Inc. 2

Hello, Oghenekaro,

My name is Christina. It is a pleasure to work with you! How are you? I hope all is going well with your writing. Here’s my bio for your reference.

Goals:

As the writer, you are the main authority and always have the final say as to what feedback you choose to implement and what feedback you choose not to implement.

A Note on My Feedback:

I have provided you with comments in text and in the comment bubbles in the margin. In addition, I will provide applicable resources specific to your needs in the margin bubbles. While I do my best to catch the main trending errors, note that non-indication is not indicative of non-error. We are not an editing or proofreading service, but rather provide instructional feedback to assist you in growing your overall writing ability. In a nutshell, our main goal is to produce a better writer.

Your myPASS Comments:

“Part 3B: Critical Appraisal of Research

Based on your appraisal, in a 1-2-page critical appraisal, suggest a best practice that emerges from the research you reviewed.

Briefly explain the best practice, justifying your proposal with APA citations of the research.

Thank you so much for your notes! I will keep my eyes attuned to things you mentioned here regarding following the assignment instructions, and I will look for what stands out to me overall. I will get to the first part of your document, which will give you a good take on what to look for in your writing as a whole. Also, as long as you revise between appointments, you can schedule another review to receive feedback on the rest of the document. Just specify which section you would like us to look at.

Let’s dive in!

Part 3B: Critical Appraisal of Research

Oghenekaro Agarin NURS – 6052N

Essentials of Evidence-Based Practice 01/17/2021

Part 3B: Critical Appraisal of Research

Based on the research reviewed on…[Sentence development: I encourage you to provide the specifics, so your readers know what you are referring to, especially readers like me that have not been exposed to your course or materials.] , the best practice is electronic health records (EHRs). [It]Noun/pronoun agreement: I encourage you to use the noun here rather than the pronoun. I think you are referring to EHRs, yet I am not sure.] was associated with the improvement of some aspects of patient safety, such as patient satisfaction and self-efficacy (citation). [APA: Some may say: How do you know? I encourage you to provide a citation to strengthen your claim here.] Neves et al. (2020) investigated the effectiveness of EHRs on the extent of quality and patient safety. In a systematic review and meta-analysis, [the researchers]Clarity: I encourage you to specify them by name to ensure clarity for your readers.] suggested that EHRs affect the improvement of patient safety. The specific names of the researchers revealed…study revealed [Anthropomorphism: APA specifies to avoid it because it can cause reader confusion. It is when human traits are given to non-human items, like in this case “a study cannot reveal” but researchers can.] that patients who had access to EHRs had better outcomes than those who did not. Sharing EHRs was linked to patient-centeredness and improvement of patient satisfaction. Patient activation, patient empowerment, and self-efficacy improved significantly, which were positive signs of the intervention’s contribution. The beneficial effect was apparent after researchers or analysis revealed by means of [a]suggest omitting.] meta-analysis [revealed]Suggest omitting]. the effectiveness of EHRs on mortality resulting from diabetes Type 2. [Anthropomorphism: Aim to eliminate anthropomorphism here. I modeled a possible correction for you out of many possibilities to help inspire your revision.]

[Important note on APA: Is all of the information from the source you cited above? If so, additional citations are not needed. If you are referencing another source, citations are needed.]

[The findings imply]Anthropomorphism: Finding cannot imply, yet you the author/researcher can. I encourage to revise this phrase and eliminate the anthropomorphism occurring.] that the implementation of EHRs could significantly affect the improvement of patient safety and the effectiveness of patient care. However, future research involving methodologically robust designs should be conducted to enhance the reliability of the findings and make the conclusions stronger. [Comment: It is a joy learning from you.] It is certain that future researchers will yield similar results in their studies and increase the meta-analytical strength of conclusions. [Anthropomorphism: I encourage you to eliminate the anthropomorphism occurring here.] Healthcare organizations should allow patients to access EHRs and measure their usage and issues related to equity to enhance their effectiveness. The other interventions did not prove to be effective in the improvement of patient safety, since their results were statistically significant and [Wording: A word is missing here.] had many shortcomings that affected the findings. Patient safety is a sensitive area in clinical research that needs to be studied widely to develop more reliable results. Future research can incorporate more concepts of determining patient safety other than the six domains of the quality of care which is difficult to measure through meta-analytic methods. Nevertheless, the findings are supported by previous research that established a potentially positive impact on patients’ access to online medical records on the delivery of patient-centered care as well as the improvement of satisfaction. Mold et al. (2015) established that patient’s use of online services had a positive impact of patient safety.

Oghenekaro,

It is a joy to discover your writing. Thank you for the opportunity to review you work. I can tell you have done a lot of excellent research and are highly invested in your topic.

To grow and develop your writing further, I encourage you to look to a few minor revisions that I marked above: eliminate anthropomorphism, look to the area of needed clarity, check to ensure you have citations for all of your research, adjust wording corrections, and correct sentence development areas and noun/pronoun agreement.

You got this!

*My allotted time is up. I do not have time to get to your second document. As long as you make corrections between appointments, you can schedule another appointment for your second document to be reviewed.

[Image of a lavender field. Taken from Pixabay]

I wish you a calm and beautiful day.

I invite you to take this brief survey. Your feedback is valuable to me. My gratitude and appreciation to you in advance.

Thank you for the opportunity to review your work. I hope to see you again!

Thank you!

Christina Lundberg, M.F.A

References Comment by Christina J. Lundberg: References: Here is a helpful resources with reference entry examples that you can use to check your reference formulas with. Many students find this resource to be highly valuable.

Mold, F., de Lusignan, S., Sheikh, A., Majeed, A., Wyatt, J. C., Quinn, T., … & Ellis, B. (2015). Patients’ online access to their electronic health records and linked online services: a systematic review in primary care. British Journal of General Practice, 65(632), e141-e151. https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp15X683941

Neves, A. L., Freise, L., Laranjo, L., Carter, A. W., Darzi, A., & Mayer, E. (2020). Impact of providing patients access to electronic health records on quality and safety of care: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Quality & Safety. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjqs-2019-010581

Hello, Oghenekaro,

My name is Christina. It is a pleasure to work with you! How are you? I hope all is going well with your writing. Here’s my bio for your reference.

Goals:

As the writer, you are the main authority and always have the final say as to what feedback you choose to implement and what feedback you choose not to implement.

A Note on My Feedback:

I have provided you with comments in text and in the comment bubbles in the margin. In addition, I will provide applicable resources specific to your needs in the margin bubbles. While I do my best to catch the main trending errors, note that non-indication is not indicative of non-error. We are not an editing or proofreading service, but rather provide instructional feedback to assist you in growing your overall writing ability. In a nutshell, our main goal is to produce a better writer.

Your myPASS Comments:

“Part 3B: Critical Appraisal of Research

Based on your appraisal, in a 1-2-page critical appraisal, suggest a best practice that emerges from the research you reviewed.

Briefly explain the best practice, justifying your proposal with APA citations of the research.

Thank you so much for your notes! I will keep my eyes attuned to things you mentioned here regarding following the assignment instructions, and I will look for what stands out to me overall. I will get to the first part of your document, which will give you a good take on what to look for in your writing as a whole. Also, as long as you revise between appointments, you can schedule another review to receive feedback on the rest of the document. Just specify which section you would like us to look at.

Let’s dive in!

Part 3B: Critical Appraisal of Research

Oghenekaro Agarin NURS – 6052N

Essentials of Evidence-Based Practice 01/17/2021

Part 3B: Critical Appraisal of Research

Based on the research reviewed on…[Sentence development: I encourage you to provide the specifics, so your readers know what you are referring to, especially readers like me that have not been exposed to your course or materials.] , the best practice is electronic health records (EHRs). [It]Noun/pronoun agreement: I encourage you to use the noun here rather than the pronoun. I think you are referring to EHRs, yet I am not sure.] was associated with the improvement of some aspects of patient safety, such as patient satisfaction and self-efficacy (citation). [APA: Some may say: How do you know? I encourage you to provide a citation to strengthen your claim here.] Neves et al. (2020) investigated the effectiveness of EHRs on the extent of quality and patient safety. In a systematic review and meta-analysis, [the researchers]Clarity: I encourage you to specify them by name to ensure clarity for your readers.] suggested that EHRs affect the improvement of patient safety. The specific names of the researchers revealed…study revealed [Anthropomorphism: APA specifies to avoid it because it can cause reader confusion. It is when human traits are given to non-human items, like in this case “a study cannot reveal” but researchers can.] that patients who had access to EHRs had better outcomes than those who did not. Sharing EHRs was linked to patient-centeredness and improvement of patient satisfaction. Patient activation, patient empowerment, and self-efficacy improved significantly, which were positive signs of the intervention’s contribution. The beneficial effect was apparent after researchers or analysis revealed by means of [a]suggest omitting.] meta-analysis [revealed]Suggest omitting]. the effectiveness of EHRs on mortality resulting from diabetes Type 2. [Anthropomorphism: Aim to eliminate anthropomorphism here. I modeled a possible correction for you out of many possibilities to help inspire your revision.]

[Important note on APA: Is all of the information from the source you cited above? If so, additional citations are not needed. If you are referencing another source, citations are needed.]

[The findings imply]Anthropomorphism: Finding cannot imply, yet you the author/researcher can. I encourage to revise this phrase and eliminate the anthropomorphism occurring.] that the implementation of EHRs could significantly affect the improvement of patient safety and the effectiveness of patient care. However, future research involving methodologically robust designs should be conducted to enhance the reliability of the findings and make the conclusions stronger. [Comment: It is a joy learning from you.] It is certain that future researchers will yield similar results in their studies and increase the meta-analytical strength of conclusions. [Anthropomorphism: I encourage you to eliminate the anthropomorphism occurring here.] Healthcare organizations should allow patients to access EHRs and measure their usage and issues related to equity to enhance their effectiveness. The other interventions did not prove to be effective in the improvement of patient safety, since their results were statistically significant and [Wording: A word is missing here.] had many shortcomings that affected the findings. Patient safety is a sensitive area in clinical research that needs to be studied widely to develop more reliable results. Future research can incorporate more concepts of determining patient safety other than the six domains of the quality of care which is difficult to measure through meta-analytic methods. Nevertheless, the findings are supported by previous research that established a potentially positive impact on patients’ access to online medical records on the delivery of patient-centered care as well as the improvement of satisfaction. Mold et al. (2015) established that patient’s use of online services had a positive impact of patient safety.

Oghenekaro,

It is a joy to discover your writing. Thank you for the opportunity to review you work. I can tell you have done a lot of excellent research and are highly invested in your topic.

To grow and develop your writing further, I encourage you to look to a few minor revisions that I marked above: eliminate anthropomorphism, look to the area of needed clarity, check to ensure you have citations for all of your research, adjust wording corrections, and correct sentence development areas and noun/pronoun agreement.

You got this!

*My allotted time is up. I do not have time to get to your second document. As long as you make corrections between appointments, you can schedule another appointment for your second document to be reviewed.

[Image of a lavender field. Taken from Pixabay]

I wish you a calm and beautiful day.

I invite you to take this brief survey. Your feedback is valuable to me. My gratitude and appreciation to you in advance.

Thank you for the opportunity to review your work. I hope to see you again!

Thank you!

Christina Lundberg, M.F.A

References Comment by Christina J. Lundberg: References: Here is a helpful resources with reference entry examples that you can use to check your reference formulas with. Many students find this resource to be highly valuable.

Mold, F., de Lusignan, S., Sheikh, A., Majeed, A., Wyatt, J. C., Quinn, T., … & Ellis, B. (2015). Patients’ online access to their electronic health records and linked online services: a systematic review in primary care. British Journal of General Practice, 65(632), e141-e151. https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp15X683941

Neves, A. L., Freise, L., Laranjo, L., Carter, A. W., Darzi, A., & Mayer, E. (2020). Impact of providing patients access to electronic health records on quality and safety of care: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Quality & Safety. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjqs-2019-010581

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