Assignment Mod 5 N490

Cannabis 101 for Nurses

Write a 1000-1500 word essay addressing each of the following points. Be sure to completely answer all the questions for each bullet point. There should be two main sections, one for each bullet below. Separate each section in your paper with a clear heading that allows your professor to know which bullet you are addressing in that section of your paper. Support your ideas with at least three (3) sources using citations in your essay. Make sure to cite using the APA writing style for the essay. The cover page and reference page in correct APA do not count towards the minimum word amount. Review the rubric criteria for this assignment.

Explain how cannabis works in the body by including information regarding the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and endocannabinoid deficiency syndrome.

Describe four different delivery routes patients may use cannabis, the onset of action for each, and one pro and one con of each route.

Assignment Expectations:

Length: 1000-1500 words; answers must thoroughly address the prompts in a clear, concise manner.

Structure: Include a title page and reference page in APA format. These do not count towards the minimum word count for this assignment. Your essay must include an introduction and a conclusion.

 

References: Use appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions. A minimum of three (3) scholarly sources and the textbook are required.

Running Head: APPLICATION OF CANNABIS IN THE HUMAN BODY 6

Application of Cannabis in the Human Body

Jadiam Lopez

Aspen University

N490 – Issues and Trends in Professional Nursing

Dr. Jeanette Plodek

07/09/2020

Application of Cannabis in the Human Body

Do not use Section One. Use the Headings provided in the Class News.

Section One:

Explain How Cannabis Works in the Human Body (Endocannabinoid System (ECS) and Endocannabinoid Deficiency Syndrome)

Where is the introduction ? Comment by Jeanette Plodek: IntroductionAs the first 2-3 paragraphs are expected to be the introduction, let’s expand and discuss …What is the problem, why it is important, what it cost/impact, and then tell the reader what the paper will discuss.Why is there a need for a discussion or a need to explore the use of Cannabidiol (CBD)? What impact is the opioid crisis having, right now?This paper will explore how cannabis works in the body and review methods of treatment for the use of CBD for ..It is not focused on the assignment requirements.It is not required or needed to add everything in the introduction. Think of this like a movie trailer- just enough details to get the reader’s attention and let the reader know why this is important.But not the whole plot.

Literature Review Search Comment by Jeanette Plodek: Let’s tell the reader how the information was located. What databases were used? What key words were used? Then transition in to what was found,Transitions https://www.scribendi.com/advice/student_writing_guide_to_transitions.en.htmlBefore making a judgement or an evaluation of a treatment, one needs to investigate what the treatment is and how it works…. Using, ProQuest, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the keywords; cannabis and endocannabinoid system; a search for current literature was conducted. The results were limited to full text, peer reviewed and the last five years. The resulting 534 results were further narrowed by relevance.

Cannabis and Endocannabinoid System Comment by Jeanette Plodek: History of Cannabis. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5312634/https://medicalcannabis.com/cannabis-science/medical-history-timeline/ Comment by Jeanette Plodek: First tell the reader the difference between THC and CBD ie which produces the high and which one is therapeutic .Then discuss the ECS system and which receptors (CBR 1 and CBR 2) are involved. Where are they located and what happens when they are triggered.Tetrahydrocananibinol (THC) targets the CBR1 receptors, which help regulate emotions, and produces the “high” feelings, while cannabidiol targets the CBR2 receptors and has been shown to produce profound anti-inflammatory effects; the two substances have been shown to have complimentary positive effects upon one another. Is this similar to the Endorphin system?This research has been going on for over 50 years.https://www.greenentrepreneur.com/article/332807 History of Cannabis. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5312634/Using a blend of scholarly and educational sources that are primary or secondary sources is OK.Be sure all sources for information or evidence are scholarly sources..Be sure all sources for information or evidence are scholarly sources.https://subjectguides.library.american.edu/primhttps://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/primary-and-secondary-sources/https://jwu-ri.libanswers.com/faq/141979https://www.editage.com/insights/5-differences-between-a-research-paper-and-a-review-paper

Over the years, medical researches on the use of Cannabis for medicinal purposes have been carried out. Primarily, research results came out to fix the doubt that was there before concerning using Cannabis to treat various diseases and infections (MacCallum & Russo, 2018). Cannabis was found to have a profound influence on the human body in many different ways that its functionality as medicine is broadly essential. Cannabis is identified to contain Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which the most psychoactive compound among the significant 113 compounds found in Marijuana. THC gives the body a feeling of high sensation when incorporated in the body through smoking or oil applications on the body. Mainly, the THC influences the brain’s functionality, and it alters the normal functioning of the mind; it gives a person the feeling of being high. Comment by Jeanette Plodek: What about CBD?

Moreover, it is essential to note that the responsibility of Cannabis in the body is enhanced by the functioning of the Endocannabinoid system of the body (ECS). The Endocannabinoid System of the body is more of a molecular system that is entirely responsible for regulating and balancing several processes based on the human body (Ramkellawan et al., 2016). Mainly, the ECS functions to trigger, control, and adjust the immune responses, communication transfer between body cells, the appetite triggers in the body, metabolism processes, memory, and many other functional processes in the body that require constant regulation and balancing (“Introduction to the Endocannabinoid system,” 2020). Significantly, ECS is connected with endocannabinoids, which are endogenous lipid-based neurotransmitters that are designed to enable fertile expression of the vertebrate central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Therefore, the ECS centrally functions in pushing the THC content of Cannabis throughout the body to give the body a powerful effect.

Also, the interconnection of ECS and Cannabis use are closely related because of the functionality component attributed to each other. For instance, for Endocannabinoids System to coordinate the functioning of the receptor proteins and the cannabinoid receptors that are expressed throughout the vertebrate central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, Cannabis from Marijuana should be introduced in the body system to increase the production of cannabinoids that increase the molecular retribution of the ECS system. Endocannabinoids’ receptors are found throughout the whole body; the organs, brain cells, within the connective tissues, and they even occupy the human glands and the immune cells of the body such as the white blood cells. Subsequently, cannabis aids in the injection or introduction of cannabinoids into the body, which wholly contributes to managing endocannabinoid receptors in various systems in the body. Therefore, Cannabis is more involved in the body’s physiologic system, which is involved in establishing and maintaining human health.

Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Syndrome Comment by Jeanette Plodek: Describe how this homeostatic system can become out of balance and what are the results?https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5576607/What types of disorders or health problem might be related to this syndrome?https://www.greenentrepreneur.com/article/332807 What are other methods such as laughter, diet, exercise which can also impact this system?Naturally stabilize the ECS. https://www.projectcbd.org/medicine/americas-opiate-crisis-how-medical-cannabis-can-helpSort of like how a hug or skin to skin touch releases endorphins.

However, the ECS system may be deprived of its functionality because of Endocannabinoid Deficiency Syndrome (EDS). The Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Syndrome (CEDS) conforms to the deficiency of endocannabinoids in the underlying ECS system (Russo, 2016). Foremost, the condition is characterized by conditions such as pathophysiology of migraines, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome. This disease is caused when the body fails to produce enough endocannabinoid or receptors within the endocannabinoid system, thus altering the system from functioning correctly (Russo, 2016). Consequentially, different and several functions of the body, including the immune cells, glands, the brain cells, and the connective tissues fail to be adequately regulated and get unbalanced, therefore, allowing diseases to attack the body. The CEDS condition causes pain, spasm, altered bowel movements with diarrhea or constipation, and digestive discomfort. Necessarily, the problem can be solved by increasing cannabinoids through injected Cannabis into the body system.

Section Two:

Four Delivery Routes Patients may use Cannabis; Onset of action for each, each has pros and cons.

Treatment and Use of Cannabis Comment by Jeanette Plodek: https://www.heretohelp.bc.ca/visions/cannabis-vol5/why-people-use-cannabis Comment by Jeanette Plodek: https://unitedpatientsgroup.com/resources/methods-of-consumption https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/severe-lung-disease.htmlhttps://www.theverge.com/2019/10/4/20899501/fda-vaping-lung-injury-deaths-advisory-thc-marijuana-juul

There are various ways patients can consume or use Cannabis across the globe, which entirely depends on the content of the drug needed and the speed it is required to go through into the body system. Nevertheless, all the routes have different therapeutic potential for patients who use Cannabis. New cannabis products and innovative delivery methods are continually emerging and evolving to help the delivery process into the body to enable quicker responses.

Firstly, Cannabis can be taken through an inhalation route by the patient (Grotenhermen, 2001). The inhalation route involves smoking of Marijuana or Cannabis product just like tobacco or cigarettes. The process involves the respiratory systems and parts that have previously relinquished adverse effects on the respiratory duct. Mainly, the tar from the inhalation process defects the paths of the respiratory systems and affects the patient’s teeth.

Moreover, the inhalation process can be improved by introducing the usage of inhalation devices that control the production of tar or THC content. Also, the inhalation devices help regulate THC and avoid the Valsalva maneuver that causes some spontaneous pneumothorax problems. The inhalation route is important because it ensures a rapid onset of action and ensures flexibility in dose titration (Grotenhermen, 2001). Comment by Jeanette Plodek: conLung damage?

Secondly, oral cannabis usage has been established as the administrative route of the product to the body. The oral administration involves taking Cannabis in a liquid form or a tablet form through the mouth, just like over the counter prescriptions. However, the significant risk of an oral route for Cannabis is accidental overdose if the patient is inexperienced (Grotenhermen, 2001). Nevertheless, accidental overdose can be controlled by ensuring the patient is prescribed with appropriate dosing procedures. The oral route is important because it involves the ingestion process, which utilizes digestion, helping the body acquire the needed cannabinoids in the body. Also, it is essential where a long duration of drug action is necessary for the patient (Grotenhermen, 2001). Comment by Jeanette Plodek: Is the absorption slower so the relief takes longer

Also, Cannabis can be administered into the body through a transdermal route. The transdermal use involves using Cannabis as oil applied on the skin through the application process. Mainly, the onset action immediately is realized after some time because the human skin is protected against penetration by external substances. Therefore, the onset procedure into the body may take longer than expected. Nevertheless, the transdermal route of administration is vital for the patients going through chemotherapy treatment of cancer. Notably, THC’s permeability coefficient can be increased with cannabis oil to allow it to dissolve appropriately with fatty acids and lipids within the skin to improve the onset actions of the product in the body.

On the whole, the rectal route has been used to administer Cannabis into the body medicinally. The procedure involves changing the suppository formulation of cannabis products by forming different polar esters of THC contained in several suppository bases. Invariably, the process happens through the rectum’s blood vessels, which ensure Cannabis’s flow through the body’s circulatory system that provides the drug is equally distributed to the whole body

(Grotenhermen, 2001). However, this administering route is painful and can accidentally lead to infection within the body’s rectal system giving a reason why patients should not use it. Comment by Jeanette Plodek: Generally, unless collaborated by a second current source, one wants to use article and information published with in the last 5-7 years. Otherwise one dose not know if the information is still current and applicable.

Where is the conclusion?

Conclusion Comment by Jeanette Plodek: ConclusionA conclusion summarizes the key points the paper discussed and draws a conclusion from what was presented in the paper.The author’s conclusion is at the end. See the last two sentences in the example below.Health care organizations must change as health care delivery changes to remain operational and competitive. Many organizations are decreasing staff including nurses to offset the decrease in funds. Decreasing nursing staff and the nursing shortage has put a strain on the remaining nurses in the organization. The strain on the nurses is caused by increase overtime and working shorted staffed; which in turn causes job dissatisfaction, burnout, and intent to leave (Stimpfel et al., 2012). Nurses working increase hours and show signs of job burnout can cause negative patient outcomes, decrease reimbursement to the health care organization. Other industries have adopted mandatory regulations for hours worked and rest (aviation, truck drivers, medical residents), now it is time to create the same type of policies for nursing. Remember one cannot introduce new information into the conclusion. It is a summary of what was learned and your, the author’s, conclusion of the research.

Did you see this in the Class News?

After the title page and Introduction:

Suggested Headings

Literature Review/Search

Endocannabinoid System and Cannabis

Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Syndrome

Treatment and use of Cannabis

Conclusion

References

Grotenhermen, F. (2001). Harm Reduction Associated with Inhalation and oral Administration of Cannabis and THC. The Haworth Press Inc.

Introduction to the Endocannabinoid system. (2020, June 29). NORML. https://norml.org/marijuana/library/recent-medical-marijuana-research/introduction-to-the-endocannabinoid-system/

MacCallum, C. A., & Russo, E. B. (2018). Practical considerations in medical cannabis administration and dosing. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 49, 12-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2018.01.004

Ramkellawan, S., Bober, S., Mindra, S., Moreau, J., & Ko, G. (2016). Medical cannabis ‒ the Canadian perspective<p class=”MsoNormal”>. Journal of Pain Research, Volume 9, 735-744. https://doi.org/10.2147/jpr.s98182

Russo, E. B. (2016). Clinical Endocannabinoid deficiency reconsidered: Current research supports the theory in migraine, Fibromyalgia, irritable bowel, and other treatment-resistant syndromes. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 1(1), 154-165. https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2016.0009

Running Head:

APPLICATION OF CANNABIS IN THE HUMAN BODY

1

Application of Cannabis in the Human Body

Jadiam Lopez

Aspen University

N490

Issues and Trends in Professional Nursing

Dr. Jeanette Plodek

07/09/2020

Running Head: APPLICATION OF CANNABIS IN THE HUMAN BODY 1

Application of Cannabis in the Human Body

Jadiam Lopez

Aspen University

N490 – Issues and Trends in Professional Nursing

Dr. Jeanette Plodek

07/09/2020

Capstone Project Change Proposal Presentation For Faculty Review And Feedback