Benchmark: Professional Capstone And Practicum Reflective Journal

Students maintained and submitted weekly reflective narratives throughout the course to explore the personal knowledge and skills gained throughout this course. This assignment combines those entries into one course-long reflective journal that integrates leadership and inquiry into current practice as it applies to the Professional Capstone and Practicum course.

This final submission should also outline what students have discovered about their professional practice, personal strengths and weaknesses that surfaced during the process, additional resources and abilities that could be introduced to a given situation to influence optimal outcomes, and, finally, how the student met the competencies aligned to this course.

The final journal should address a variable combination of the following, while incorporating your specific clinical practice experiences:

New practice approaches
Interprofessional collaboration
Health care delivery and clinical systems
Ethical considerations in health care
Practices of culturally sensitive care
Ensuring the integrity of human dignity in the care of all patients
Population health concerns
The role of technology in improving health care outcomes
Health policy
Leadership and economic models
Health disparities
While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

Benchmark Information

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies:


2.3: Understand and value the processes of critical thinking, ethical reasoning, and decision-making.

4.1: Utilize patient care technology and information management systems.

4.3: Promote interprofessional collaborative communication with health care teams to provide safe and effective care.

5.3: Provide culturally sensitive care.

5.4: Preserve the integrity and human dignity in the care of all patients.



Benchmark – Professional Capstone and Practicum Reflective Journal; This should include (all 10 weeks) of reflections with a cover page of your completion of the project from your weekly reflections


Topic: Benchmark: Professional Capstone And Practicum Reflective Journal

Student’s name:






Nursing had always been a formal practice right from its inception. It basically has nothing to do with gender differences or in equality of any sort. A lot of women from the initial inception of nursing acquired a lot of these knowledge from mothers, and any nurse at that time. Women have attained that responsibility of being a caretaker, and nursing others, which became a sort of continuity in the modern day nursing. However, in today nursing, formal education is needed for nurses to be a part of the profession in question, varied topics, and classes are initiated, and nurses will need to exceed excellently in the program, then sit for a nursing board exam, pass it, before actually recognized as a nurse. The nurses in this era is different from olden days where it is only ascribed to as caretakers, and taking care of others, there is more to it now. Nurses of today do a vast number of responsibilities, they are basically assistants to the physicians. Patients see nurses first before they see a physician. A professional nurse duty is different from the olden days nursing duty and ordinary caretaker. It is more modern, and more professional, nurses are rated high at this reporting period. Training for nurses also differs, there is a licensed practice nurse, and a registered nurse, the training acquired differs, thus there is a designated duty differences ascribed to each of the nursing programs, the skills are different for both nurses. The LPN is monitored by an RN, where as an RN has a sole responsibility role, can perform duties without getting supervised. The nurse only needs to know what to do at any point in time.

Nurses also needs to adhere strictly to the rule of communication in the profession. Ways and manner of communicating with patients and family. Communication is a key fundamental principle in nursing, showing empathy, by putting oneself in the position of the patient, and giving adequate care with dignity


Raso A, Ligozzi L, Garrino L, Dimonte V. Nursing profession and nurses’ contribution to nursing education as seen through students’ eyes: A qualitative study. Nurs Forum. 2019 Jul;54(3):414-424.

Younan L, Clinton M, Fares S, Samaha H. The translation and cultural adaptation validity of the Actual Scope of Practice Questionnaire. East Mediterr Health J. 2019 Apr 25;25(3):181-188.

2. Interprofessional collaboration

Interprofessional collaboration in nursing is a critical aspect of patient care and career. According to Rose, L. (2011), It is the Professional involvement of a team in the health care services that provide skills by collaborating with patients, families, caregivers, and communities where they consider communicating to each other’s through unique perspective in delivering the highest quality of care. It has an essential role in ensuring that patients are well taken care of and receive the best treatment from qualified nurses. Its function is to ensure integrity in adopting effective modes of communication with professionals of other disciplines. By doing this, the nurses get skills through teamwork and professional skills that are executed.

Interprofessional collaboration comes with crucial benefits in that it empowers team members in their daily activities by motivating each other. It ensures that unnecessary Communication Gaps. They are done away with hence saving time and resources. It Enables Comprehensive Patient Care. in health centres. It Minimizes Readmission Rates because all that is required is done by the team involved in specific tasks. Glen, S. (1999). It promotes a positive Team Mentality. On the critical issue that requires motivation and lastly, It Promotes Patient-Centered Care. The primary purpose of interprofessional collaboration in healthcare is to prevent medication errors, improve the patient experience and deliver better patient outcomes, which can reduce healthcare costs. It also helps hospitals save money by shoring up workflow redundancies and operational inefficiencies.


Rose, L. (2011). Interprofessional collaboration in the ICU: how to define?. Nursing in critical care, 16(1), 5-10.

Glen, S. (1999). Educating for interprofessional collaboration: Teaching about values. Nursing Ethics, 6(3), 202-213.

3. Health care delivery and clinical systems

A health care delivery system is an organization of people, institutions, and resources to deliver health care services to meet the health needs of a target population. For a health care delivery system to be accepted, key objectives should be advocated for. The first is that it must enable all citizens to obtain needed health care services. It ensures that it protects the needs of the patients while relieving treatment and consultation. Ma, A. (2002). The second one is the services must be cost-effective and meet specific established standards of quality. For a health centre to be allowed to administer the treatment and patient care, it must be fit to run, I.e. it must have skilled staff and qualified doctors and practitioners to work closely with the nurses to save lives, for example, the US health care delivery system falls short of both these ideals. Some good examples are Advocate Health System in Chicago and Partners HealthCare System in Boston.

Furthermore, the health care systems: is characterized by four key models: the Beveridge Model, the Bismarck model, the National Health Insurance model, and the out-of-pocket model. Moreover, It incorporates four functional components, which are; financing, insurance, delivery and payment. They ensure that the procedures are followed to the latter and give the patients the privilege of their health care rights. The goals that provide sustainable and effective healthcare systems are; appropriate access to necessary healthcare services. The second is an assurance of a quality workforce. The third one is services and institutions, and lastly is an acceptable cost to society.

On the other hand, clinical systems work together with the health care system to ensure that the nurses treat patients according to the health care services given by the world health organization. CIS’s key goals include capturing information, preferably once from the most reliable source; delivery of “just-in-time” decision support; and the augmentation and refinement, not the translation of information as it moves from one area of institutional or clinical expertise to another. The four core components of clinical information systems are; EHRs, the CPOE systems; third is the digital sources of medical evidence; and lastly, the decision-support tools. Saag, M. S. (2011).


Wan, T. T., Lin, B. Y. J., & Ma, A. (2002). Integration mechanisms and hospital efficiency in integrated health care delivery systems. Journal of Medical Systems, 26(2), 127-143.

Mugavero, M. J., Norton, W. E., & Saag, M. S. (2011). Health care system and policy factors influencing engagement in HIV medical care: piecing together the fragments of a fractured health care delivery system. Clinical infectious diseases, 52(suppl_2), S238-S246.

4. Ethical considerations in health care

Roberts, L. W. (2005) posits that nurses advocate for patients and must find a balance while delivering patient care. There are four main principles of ethics: autonomy, beneficence, justice, and non-maleficence. Each patient has the right to make their own decisions based on their own beliefs and values. The Ethical considerations that a health system should consider are; informed consent, Voluntary participation. Avoiding harming Patients, Confidentiality in operation in the health facilities, skilled Anonymity did, and only assessing relevant components From your jurisdiction. According to Feudtner, C. (2020). Some of the challenges that come during health care execution are; Unethical Leadership, Toxic Workplace Culture that is not supported by the norm of the health rules, Discrimination and Harassment of patients by the nurses, Unrealistic and Conflicting Goals and Questionable Use of Company Technology. in unauthorized operations.

Recently there have been some concerns on how health practitioners have been executing their roles as skilled nurses and specialists. These concerns have made the management to battle with some challenges that arise from these issues. First, Taking Advantage of Big Data without Dehumanizing Patients. It can result to death or complications to the patents since the data being used to treat a particular patient have been manipulated. Secondly, Safeguarding Patient Privacy When Using Population Health Data. Concealed information of a patient should be kept private because it is the right of the patient to do so to avoids too much rejections and isolations because of some health complications. Thirdly, Ensuring Equal Access to Customized Medicine. Administering the right dosage to a patient ensures that the patient gets well soon and avoid illnesses from affecting the patient unlike when the drugs are abused. Moreover, Reconciling Patient Care Decisions with Financial Management ensures that the patient maintain order as they receive treatment. Furthermore, Implementing Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Ethically. The technology will ensure that operations are done with heist and accurately since they are programmed to work fast. Another issue is Devising Ethical Responses to Pandemics and Other Widespread Medical Emergencies and lastly, Combining the Science of Health with the World of Business. It will help boost the economy of the country and also help in the development of the hospitals.


Warner, T. D., Monaghan-Geernaert, P., Battaglia, J., Brems, C., Johnson, M. E., & Roberts, L. W. (2005). Ethical considerations in rural health care: a pilot study of clinicians in Alaska and New Mexico. Community Mental Health Journal, 41(1), 21-33.

Char, D. S., Abràmoff, M. D., & Feudtner, C. (2020). Identifying ethical considerations for machine learning healthcare applications. The American Journal of Bioethics, 20(11), 7-17.

5. Practices of culturally sensitive care

A skilled health care facility must consider several cultures so that it does not suffer some fatal deaths because of neglect of some issues. De Donder, L. (2020). For this to be successful, some essential ideas must be put into place. The first is thinking beyond race and ethnicity. It means that a person’s culture is shaped by more than the colour of their skin or the way that they dress. Secondly, learn by asking. Before executing procedures on patients, make local connections. To inquire on what should be done, Pay attention to non-verbal behaviours and—exchanging stories. That will give you a recap of what should be done. Cultural competence is necessary because it helps the nurse offer the best services to every patient, leading to high satisfaction and care on the patient’s side. Culturally competent nurses are essential to providing top-quality services to their patients, translating to better health care in every community. Rozmus, C. (2001). For effective Cross-Cultural Communication to be achieved, the following must be put into consideration.

· Maintain etiquette. Many cultures have specific etiquette around the way they communicate.

· Avoid slang.

· Speak slowly.

· Keep it simple.

· Practice active listening.

· Take turns to talk.

· Write things down.

When in doubt, the best way to provide sensitive care to patients of diverse cultures is to ask. When you initiate care during your initial assessment, ask if you need to know about any cultural or religious practices or beliefs to respect and support their needs.

these challenges are diverse and include; insecurity to engage with patients, misunderstanding of patients, more directive communication, negative impacts on shared decision making, more time-consuming communication and perceived power distance between patients and physicians,


Claeys, A., Berdai-Chaouni, S., Tricas-Sauras, S., & De Donder, L. (2020). Culturally Sensitive Care: Definitions, Perceptions, and Practices of Health Care Professionals. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 1043659620970625.

Lawrence, P., & Rozmus, C. (2001). Culturally sensitive care of the Muslim patient. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 12(3), 228-233.

6 Ensuring the integrity of human dignity in the care for all patients

Human dignity (HD) is an essential component of clinical ethics and essential in effective patient care. One of the concepts in analyzing HD in care for patients is Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis. HD is a vital component of patient care and is founded on the integrity and humanistic values of human beings. The concept is essential in all stages of the disease, age, and the period of life (Kadivar et al., 2018). Rather than focusing on the healthcare settings, HD is also applicable to patients in other areas. HD is based on religious, social, cultural, and justice-based ideology as a basis for its adoption.

HD is an important component of patient care. Privacy, as a component of HD, is one of the areas where there are threats or invasions to HD. Healthcare provisions should always ensure it does not disrupt Human Dignity (Winter, 2018). Other issues that lead to low Hd include the inability to perform basic roles, depression, lack of empathy from the staff and friends, and uncertainty about the future. Maintaining Human Dignity should always be prioritized in healthcare for all patients.


Kadivar, M., Mardani-Hamooleh, M., & Kouhnavard, M. (2018). Concept analysis of human dignity in patient care: Rodgers’ evolutionary approach. Journal of medical ethics and history of medicine, 11.

Winter, S. F., (2018). Human dignity as a leading principle in public health ethics: a multi-case analysis of 21st-century German health policy decisions. International journal of health policy and management, 7(3), 210.

7 Population health concerns

In recent years, there have been many arising population health concerns, Like Dengue fever, Zika, Covid 19, and many more that affect the global populations. Also, resurgences of some diseases like measles have occurred, which were initially under control. However, the threats to public health continue to be influenced by long-standing issues that should be addressed (Luo & Gao, 2020). The long-standing threats to public health are healthcare and access disparities, social isolation, trauma and violence, and food insecurity.

If the major health threats are addressed, it will drastically help in improving public health and ensuring that many long-standing issues are addressed. There is inadequate access to health care and facilities, especially in developing countries, which drastically affects the quality and delivery of healthcare. Loneliness and isolation also lead to public health because they may lead to diseases like obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, and many more lifestyle diseases (Ross et al., 2019). Violence and trauma lead to public health concerns, with the impact of the actions affecting those directly and indirectly involved. Food insecurity is a public health concern because it leads to malnutrition and hunger which may lead to developmental problems in children and chronic diseases in adults. The stakeholders should work together to ensure the health concerns are reviewed and addressed.


Luo, G. G., & Gao, S. J. (2020). Global health concerns stirred by emerging viral infections. Journal of medical virology, 92(4), 399.

Ross, A. G., Zaman, K., & Clemens, J. D. (2019). Health concerns in urban slums: a glimpse of things to come?. Jama, 321(20), 1973-1974.



8 The role of technology in improving healthcare outcomes

With the continuous advancement of technology, it is essential to incorporate technology in healthcare practice to improve the efficiency and accuracy of outcomes. Incorporating technology in healthcare means the use of both hardware and software systems in processing, storing, retrieving, sharing, and other uses of healthcare data to help in decision making and improved communication. Technology in the health setup includes decision support, information systems, charting, and other medical technology outcome integrations (Harvey et al., 2018). The integration of technology leads to the transformation of various healthcare processes through human error reduction, clinical outcome improvement, data tracking, database management systems, practice efficiency, and overall continuous improvement.

Patient healthcare outcomes drastically improve with the effective integration of technology. Also, technology improves at a high rate and healthcare systems should ensure they regularly update their hardware and software to improve efficiency. Technology can be used in physician orders and prescribing to improve consultations and the safety of medication orders. Clinical decision support systems are combined with electronic physician orders to improve healthcare practice (Winter et al., 2018). Electronic database management systems also ensure that there is an effective and reliable inventory system to ensure stocks are effectively monitored and controlled, and patient records easily available.


Harvey, G., Llewellyn, S., Maniatopoulos, G., Boyd, A., & Procter, R. (2018). Facilitating the implementation of clinical technology in healthcare: what role does a national agency play?. BMC health services research, 18(1), 1-10.

Winter, A., Stäubert, S., Ammon, D., Aiche, S., Beyan, O., Bischoff, V., … & Löffler, M. (2018). Smart medical information technology for healthcare (SMITH). Methods of information in medicine, 57(S 01), e92-e105.


9 Health Policy

Health policy is a combination of strategies, decisions, and objectives undertaken to help in achieving healthcare targets in a society. The role of a health policy is to ensure it outlines priorities, defines a vision, informs people, and building consensus (Wing et al., 2018). Health policies are divided into many categories, including public health policies, pharmaceutical policy, mental health policy, vaccination policy, healthcare services, and tobacco control policy. In various countries, access to healthcare is left to individuals to pay for them and medical industries to conduct research (Campos & Reich, 2020). In other countries, policies exist to ensure access to all citizens, healthcare research funding, planning, and ensuring healthcare goals are met. In most governments, healthcare accounts for most spending because of its importance.


Campos, P. A., & Reich, M. R. (2019). Political analysis for health policy implementation. Health Systems & Reform, 5(3), 224-235.

Wing, C., Simon, K., & Bello-Gomez, R. A. (2018). The designing difference in difference studies: best practices for public health policy research. Annual review of public health, 39.

10 Leadership and economic models

Many healthcare organizations are designed to use the conventional industrial standards of performance that are reliant on conformity. In the emergent economy, characterized by holistic change, more competition, informed consumers, there is a challenge in creating a model that factors personalized healthcare and patient-based outcomes in the various processes. The economic models are essential especially when the leadership designs various ways to allocate and use resources. The economic theory is essential in delivering healthcare services. Leadership in the healthcare setup is vital in decision making and formulating policies that ensure efficiency and quality service delivery (Murray, 2019). Economics is based on concerns with how people make decisions and the reasons behind it. The aspects like cost-benefit analysis are used by the leadership in determining services produced and the costs incurred. In healthcare, allocation of healthcare and how they are treated is directly proportional to the service delivery and financial performance of the hospitals.

The leadership should ensure they find a balance between pricing and the costs of production. How they pay their personnel affects service delivery, and should therefore ensure the workforce is happy, therefore boosting the efficiency of service delivery. The benefits should be evaluated alongside the opportunity costs against the utility of all other possible options. The volume and quality of healthcare delivery influence the efficiency of the entire healthcare setting (Warshawski, 2019).

It is important to develop a better understanding of how nurses use their time to develop a better efficiency in nursing care delivery using the economic theory.


Murray, T. A. (2019). The future of nursing 2020–2030: Educating the workforce.

Warshawsky, N. E. (2019). Nursing leadership: state of the science. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, 49(5), 229-230.

Diversity issues in health assessments