Critical Reasoning

Question 1

· Textbook: Chapter 8, 9

Reference: Jackson, D. & Newberry, P. (2016). Critical Thinking: A User’s Manual (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth

· Link (website): How to Interpret Surveys in Medical Research: A Practical Approach (Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine) (Links to an external site.)


· Link (website): Methods (Pew Research Center) (Links to an external site.)

Instructions The reasoning used in inductive generalization is based on empirical observations and the inferences we draw from such observations. As such, it is closely allied to the scientific method. It is also the method used in polls and surveys; reports of the results of these polls and surveys can heavily influence decision making in health professions and other areas of public opinion.

For the initial post, address the following:

· Using what you learn from the text and from research you conduct from other sources, analyze polls and surveys.

· If we simply read a report of a poll, how can we know if the poll is reliable? What criteria do we use to analyze them?

· What part do polls and surveys play in medical research?

· Of what value are public opinion polls?

· Inductive generalization is sometimes mistaken for deductive categorical reasoning.

· Using what you’ve learned in your study of analogical reasoning, examine why this may happen?

· What are the similarities in the two? The differences?

· Where does the analogy break down?

The website links provided in the Required Resources are a good starting place for your research.

Question 2

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

· Textbook: Chapter 10

Reference: Jackson, D. & Newberry, P. (2016). Critical Thinking: A User’s Manual (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth

· Link (library article): Myopia and Ambient Lighting at Night (Links to an external site.)

· Link (library article): Myopia and Ambient Night-Time Lighting (Links to an external site.)

· Link (website): What Are Clinical Trials and Studies? (Links to an external site.)

Instructions As the text points out, causal reasoning is used in clinical studies. As a professional in the health field, you will undoubtedly be referring to cause/effect studies for the rest of your professional life. In this discussion, you are asked to expand and deepen your understanding of clinical studies.

In 1999, a study on the causes of myopia appeared in the prestigious journal Nature (Quinn). The study received wide-spread publicity in leading newspapers, such as the New York Times, and on television outlets, such as CBS and CNN. Within a year, another article in Naturefollowed up the 1999 study (Zadnik). The studies had dramatically different findings.

Using what you have learned from the text, as well as any other sources you may find useful (including the websites in the Required Resources), analyze and evaluate the methodology of both studies and how methodology affected the differences in how the studies were reported.

Reportage of both studies can be found with an Internet search using all of the following terms: <Philadelphia myopia night lights>

Question 3

Introduction The first two steps in evidence-based practice are to identify knowledge gaps and formulate relevant questions. In this writing exercise, you will be doing just that, across three types of inductive reasoning. In addition, you will be applying evaluation techniques to determine how credible, authoritative, and reliable the arguments are.

Scenario Imagine your boss has asked you to evaluate four ideas that she is thinking of using to implement programs. You must evaluate whether these are good ideas that she can safely and immediately green-light or whether further evidence is needed. She is anxious to move forward, so she will be unhappy if you reject a good idea; however, if you approve a bad idea, she will be equally as unhappy. She has specifically directed you not to do any outside research. You must evaluate the ideas strictly on the brief passages available. She also wants to know what specific kind of reasoning is used in each passage

Instructions Using everything you have learned from the text, as well as any other information you have gathered from your searches related to this week’s discussion, evaluate the following four arguments:

Reference: Jackson, D. & Newberry, P. (2016). Critical Thinking: A User’s Manual (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth


· Chapter 8 Exercise 8.9 Examples 7 and 10


Among people who use multiple dietary supplements, fish oil/omega -3 supplements now top multivitamins in popularity. The conclusion is based on 6,012 responses collected in November from a sampling of subscribers to our free e-newsletter. Fish oil/omega -3 supplements were used by 74% of respondents, followed in popularity by multivitamins, which were used by 72% –

8.9 EXAMPLE 10

For profit hospices do not focus on the best interests of their patients. In one study assessing the impact of ownership status on care provided to patients, researchers found that patients receiving care from for-profit hospices received a narrower range of services than patients from non-profit hospices. The narrower range of services meant that patients with for profit hospices were not receiving as much counseling services, medications, and personal care. – Carlson, Gallo, and Bradley, “Ownership Status and Patterns of Care in Hospice”.

· Chapter 9 Exercise 9.9 Example 1


The University of Hawaii at Manoa is a lot like the University of Colorado at Denver. They are both public, coeducational universities located in the capital city of their state, and they both have student populations of approximately 20,000 students. Since 64% of the students at the University of Hawaii are of Asian or Pacific Island descent, approximately the same number of students at the University of Colorado at Denver are of Asian of Pacific Island Descent.

· Chapter 10 Exercise 10.9 Example 1

10.9 EXAMPLE 1

Recently researchers compared 286 depressed workers with 193 others who were not depressed. Since only the depressed workers had such problems as fatigue, lack of motivation, and trouble managing their usual workload, researchers concluded that depression was the cause of their problems at work – American Journal of Health Promotion

For each exercise, address the following:

· Identify the type of inductive argument and any features of the way the argument is constructed that you find relevant.

· Explain how convincing you think the argument is.

· Does it have sufficient evidence to allow you to suggest that she move forward with the idea or does the argument have knowledge gaps?

· What questions need to be answered to close these gaps?

· Does the argument contain any information that adds to its authority, credibility, or reliability?

You need to show your boss that you know what factors have to be considered in evaluating each type of argument and how well the argument meets the criteria.


Jackson, D. & Newberry, P. (2016). Critical Thinking: A User’s Manual (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth


Any other Reference

Advantages Or Disadvantages Of Qualitative And Quantitative Methods