Critical Reasoning Week 2 Discussion

Please see the attachment

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This is a graded discussion: 25 points possible due Jul 20 at 1:59am

Week 2 Discussion: Context, Meaning, and Value 47 47

Required Resources Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Initial Post Instructions Select one of the following options to research for this discussion:

Before you read the news articles, try to look at the artworks through an image search in Google. Then, read the news articles to see the different viewpoints about the murals.

For the initial post, address at least four (4) of the following questions for the option you selected:

Textbook: Chapter 4, 5 Lesson At least 1 news article (e.g., latimes.com, usatoday.com, nytimes.com) Minimum of 1 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)

Option 1: Google <California Washington mural>. You will find numerous reports concerning a California school district that voted to paint over a mural in the high school. The Life of Washington was painted by Depression-era artist Victor Arnautoff. Option 2: Google <Indiana University Thomas Hart Benton mural>. You will find numerous articles on the controversy surround a panel from Benton’s A Social History of Indiana (1933) murals. Option 3: Conduct research on a mural or statue or monument in your town that is the subject of controversy.

What do you think should be done with the artwork (e.g., painted over, covered, destroyed, left as is in plain view, etc.)? Why? Should the context in which the artwork was created (the Great Depression of the 1930s in the case of the Benton and Arnautoff murals) have an impact on the decision of what to do with the artwork? Should the context in which people now view the artwork have an impact on the decision of what to do with it? What message do you think the artwork conveys? Do you think there is ambiguity in the message? Do you think the message is vague? Does the artistic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message? Does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message? Do you think the message of the artwork is sufficiently important that the message alone requires that it be saved? Do you think the artists were biased or prejudiced? If yes, explain specifics about the artwork that support

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Search entries or author

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Follow-Up Post Instructions Respond to at least two peers or one peer and the instructor. Respond to one peer who chose a controversial artwork other than the one you chose. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification. Do you agree or disagree with your peers’ positions? Explain why. In addition, address different issues than what your peer focused on.

Writing Requirements

Grading This activity will be graded using the Discussion Grading Rubric. Please review the following link:

Course Outcomes (CO): 5, 6

Due Date for Initial Post: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Wednesday Due Date for Follow-Up Posts: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Sunday

your opinion. Do you think viewers might be bringing bias or prejudice to their opinions? Are you?

Minimum of 3 posts (1 initial & 2 follow-up) Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source) APA format for in-text citations and list of references

Link (webpage): Discussion Guidelines

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Jun 22, 2020

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Greetings Students,

You are only required to post an initial answer post and ONE follow-up post in each required discussion, each week.

Please make your TWO posts each week between Monday and Sunday. Your posts must occur on different days with the first post occurring by Wednesday. If there are extenuating circumstances, please communicate with your professor.

One of the topics for this week focused on context, purpose, and quality. The text also mentioned interpreting science and pseudoscience. When it comes to interpreting claims of science and/or pseudoscience, how would you go about doing so?

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Edited by Sonja Sheffield (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891) on Jun 22 at 12:37pm

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Science is a means for uncovering truth that investigates causal explanations to discover empirical facts about how the world works. Science is not the only way of constructing knowledge, since we also learn about the world from direct perception, by reasoning, and through aspects of life that are not empirically measurable, such as humor, dignity, and love. The reliability of science comes from its use of precise definitions, clearly defined contexts, and replicable results. If no one else can recreate your experiment, it’s more anecdote than science.

Some claims look like science but aren’t. We call this pseudoscience. Pseudoscience doesn’t follow the rules of the scientific method. To protect yourself from being taken in by pseudoscience, look out for the following signs:

A pseudoscientific explanation will often fail many of the standards of a good explanation in the following ways:

Think about how context and purpose affect the quality of interpretation. Watch the following video for more information on context, meaning and value.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KoyDmwNwIKQ&feature=youtu.be (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KoyDmwNwIKQ&feature=youtu.be)

(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KoyDmwNwIKQ&feature=youtu.be)

References:

Dewey, J. (1909). How we think. Retrieved from https://www.gutenberg.org/files/37423/37423-h/37423- h.html (https://www.gutenberg.org/files/37423/37423-h/37423-h.htm)

Soomo Webtext. (2016). Sources [E-reader Version]. Retrieved from https:webapps/smo-soomo- bb_bb60/soomo/courselink?course_id=_253478_1&mode=cpview (https://blackboard.strayer.edu/webapps/smo-soomo-bb_bb60/soomo/courselink? course_id=_253478_1&mode=cpview)

Providing the explanation after the fact Failing to consider alternatives Not being open to the possibility of error Bypassing peer review before reporting widely Relying heavily on anecdotal evidence

Not empirically testable Doesn’t explain anything beyond the phenomenon it’s supposed to explain Overly complex / raises more questions Doesn’t fit in with what we already know about how the world works

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/118358)Monica Hernandez (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/118358) Monday

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Good Morning Professor and Class,

Option 1: Option 1: Google <California Washington (https://image-seeker.com/s/?q=Washington) mural>

This mural was painted in 1936. There have been many debates on having the mural removed from San Fransico High School because of the reference to slavery. According to the article of Los Angeles Times it mentions, “The Depression-era mural, which depicts black slaves and dead Native Americans in Colonial-era scenery, is in the lobby of George Washington High School on Geary Boulevard in San Francisco’s Richmond District. The 13 frescoes, known collectively as “The Life of Washington,” were painted by Russian artist Victor Arnautoff in 1936, and funded by the New Deal Works Progress Administration”(Wick 2019).

References:

Wick, J. (2019, August 13). Newsletter: What will become of San Francisco’s controversial George Washington mural? Retrieved July 13, 2020, from https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2019-08- 13/san-francisco-mural-controversy-george-washington (https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2019-

In my opinion, the mural should be left as in plain view, because the issue after the many years doesn’t show any good manner. We should understand that we cannot erase or change the history of America but we can change our behavior and attitude. I don’t think every mural is a symbol of race or slavery, we are living in the 21 century, and we cannot be stuck with conservative ideologies. The mural issues are nothing more than the conservative ideology and teasing. Students and schools should make an open environment to develop better interpersonal relations. I am not sure that the creator of this artwork was intentional to show the racism or slavery, they just have done a job in effective manners but now we are searching for racist ideas in everything. I don’t know, why modern American society is tilting towards conservatism and social identity. I think the artwork should be considered as the artwork rather than anything else, any traditional idea can ruin the value of the artwork. The artwork is just a symbol of American history and it should remain safe. History is a part of our present as well as the future so destroying history will affect the future. For example, many Tsars humiliated their people but it does not mean we should have destroyed buildings and beautiful structures. The artwork conveys the ideological and socio-economic values of contemporary America, it helps us to understand the history and present. If we see any social discrimination in the artwork is just an apperception. We should see the artwork as part of American history and culture which is changing gradually.

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08-13/san-francisco-mural-controversy-george-washington)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/118358)Monica Hernandez (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/118358) Monday

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Reference:

Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking critically. 3 . Ed. Pearson:Boston, MA.rd

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Monday

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Monica, thank you for your post this week and providing your thoughts on the murals.

You wrote, “. . .the mural should be left as in plain view, beause the issue after the many years doesn’t show any good manner.” Can you explain what you mean by “good manner”?

What exactly do you understand the conservative ideologies to be? Explain.

You also wrote, “. . .they just have done a job in effective manners. . .” What does that mean?

Can you provide a bit more information on how the Tsars humiliated their people and how that may be relevant to your post on this manner? I am not quite connecting the dots.

Finally, what is “apperception”? I am not familiar with that term.

Let’s look at vagueness in language. Vagueness in language can mean of uncertain, indefinite, or unclear character or meaning or Thinking or communicating in an unfocused or imprecise way (Oxford Dictionary). Language can be used to mislead and confuse, or to make certain ideas seem more profound than they really are.

One main task of critical thinking is to identify these linguistic pitfalls. Let’s start with one major pitfall – vagueness.

Vague is an imprecise boundary. The term “a tall person” is also vague. Why do you think that is so? Explain.

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/120562)Dianne Cruz (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/120562) Monday

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Option 1: California Washington Mural

The California Washington Mural is a Mural painted in a local Washington High school has brought up a lot of controversy. It depicts black slaves and dead Native Americans in colonial-era. Many see it as offensive, and something that should be removed from the school. It was painted in 1936 by Victor Arnautoff. It has years of history and removing it would be a huge step.

– I think the mural should be removed, even though we all know slavery is part of our history, I don’t think it is something that needs to be reminded every single day. Especially in a high school where students can get offended. Showing slaves and dead Native Americans is not a part of history that should be shown on a mural.

– I personally do not think this message is vague. Showing slaves being sold at the market is showing everyone who sees it the years of suffering they had to go through. Also the fact that it only shows people of color being hurt speaks a lot. Slaves are being sold, native Americans are the ones dead, while white people just look.

– The artistic value does not require to be saved, no matter how good a painting is, it does not give it the right to offend people that way I think this mural did, and it does not give it the right to show racism the way it does.

– When it comes to the historic value,slavery and racism is something that many experience to this day. This mural does not to be saved to remember history because that part of history is something that is still seen today in the 21st century.

References:

Diaz, A. (2019, June 28). School to cover up George Washington mural that depicts violence and slavery. Retrieved July 13, 2020, from https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-george-washington-san- francisco-mural-20190628-story.html (https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-george-washington-san- francisco-mural-20190628-story.html)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Tuesday

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Hello Dianne, thank you for your post for this week and expressing your thoughts on the California Washington mural.

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Edited by Sonja Sheffield (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891) on Jul 14 at 1:59pm

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I would definitely agree that the California Washington mural has brought up a lot of controversy as many of the statues have brought up a lot of controversy today.

It’s interesting that you believe that the mural should be removed and at the same time recognizing that slavery is definitely a part of our history. And I would agree that that type reminder does not have to be delivered every single day, however, without that particular mural, there are some things are going on in the United States today where people are reminded and there is no mural present. Would you agree with that?

Yes, seemingly the Caucasian race do appear to be lookers on and not as concerned, perhaps, as they should be.

When you wrote that the artistic value does not require to be saved no matter how good the painting is, what do you propose should happen to the mural? I’m really interested in your answer. And as far as is not showing racism the way it does, there are some things going on today in the past couple of months that shows racism in the same way, would you agree?

You make some very valid points and I enjoyed reading your post.

Let’s look at some cognitive biases.

A man bumps into you and walks away without apology. What are your immediate thoughts running in your head at the moment about that stranger? What type of bias is this and how can it be avoided?

Reference

Holm, C. (2015). The 25 cognitive biases: Uncovering the myth of rational thinking. [Kindle version]. Retrieved from amazon.com.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/143371)Chloe Williams (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/143371) Monday

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Chloe Williams

Week 2 Discussion

Option 1: Google <California Washington mural>. You will find numerous reports concerning a California school district that voted to paint over a mural in the high school. The Life of Washington was painted by Depression-era artist Victor Arnautoff.

Q1. What message do you think the artwork conveys? I believe that this artwork conveys violence and slavery. The artwork showed Washington standing over a dead Native American and African Americans slaves working in his field. Basically the message the art was giving off is that violence and brutalizing Native

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Americans and African Americans was okay.

Q2. Do you think the message is vague? I believe that message given off from the mural was not vague. In the artwork, the message and portraits were clear as day. I believe the purpose for the artwork was to show our first President, Washington, life and intentions. He was all for slavery and brutalizing them and Native Americans and that’s what the mural showed.

Q3. Does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message? I believe that the historic value of the artwork does not needs to be saved regardless of the message. Gray Brechin, project scholar of the Living New Deal at the University of California, Berkeley, said, “It’s not a matter of erasing art, it’s erasing history itself” (The New York Times, 2019). Although I agree that, that is true. I still believe that art should be removed because it is rude and disrespectful to other cultures still until this day.

Q4. Do you think the message of the artwork is sufficiently important that the message alone requires that it be saved? I believe that the message of the artwork is not important at all. I think that is it rude and should be removed. Stevon Cook, president of the San Francisco Board of Education, wants the paintings covered or removed. He claims that he supports teaching history in classrooms but opposes “violent images that are offensive to certain communities,” he said (New York Time, 2019)

References

Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking critically. 3 . Ed. Pearson:Boston, MA.

Pogash, Carol. (2019). The High School Murals Depict an Ugly History. Should They Go? The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/11/arts/design/george-washington-murals- ugly-history-debated.html (https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/11/arts/design/george-washington-murals-ugly- history-debated.html)

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Tuesday

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Hello Chloe, thank you for sharing your thoughts on the mural of your choice and what is to be done with it.

I would agree that the artwork conveys violence and slavery. And I would also propose that during the time that it was painted, it would appear that the message you indicate that it was okay is probably accurate.

I do know that George Washington held slaves for many years but did you ever read or hear that he really wanted to in that practice? I believe I read somewhere many years ago that he did in fact free his slaves but I can’t remember where I heard that from because it was so long ago. But one more port do you know for sure that he brutalized the Native Americans? I’m just curious if that’s recorded anywhere.

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And because you believe that the artwork should be removed, do you have any ideas or suggestions as to where it would be moved to? I’d love to hear your response.

If I can extract from you a little bit more information to your point that “I believe that the message of the artwork is not important at all. I think that it is rude and should be removed.” The reason I’m asking for more clarification is because you also use those terms rude and should be removed previously. And I wonder if you have some additional thoughts.

And with reference to Stevon Cook’s quote, “supporting teaching history in classrooms but opposes violent images that are offensive to certain communities, does that message saying vague or nebulous to you any way?

Click video above or here to play video (https://cdnapisec.kaltura.com/index.php/extwidget/preview/partner_id/956951/uiconf_id/43830551/entry_id/1 _jml6kkfk/embed/dynamic) to answer the question posed. Reference

(https://cdnapisec.kaltura.com/index.php/extwidget/preview/partner_id/956951/uiconf_id/43830551/entry_id/1 _jml6kkfk/embed/dynamic) (https://cdnapisec.kaltura.com/index.php/extwidget/preview/partner_id/956951/uiconf_id/43830551/entry_id/1 _jml6kkfk/embed/dynamic) Cherry, K., & Morin, A. (2020). What is cognitive bias? Cognitive Psychology. https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-a-cognitive-bias-2794963 (https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-a-cognitive-bias-2794963) (https://cdnapisec.kaltura.com/index.php/extwidget/preview/partner_id/956951/uiconf_id/43830551/entry_id/1 _jml6kkfk/embed/dynamic) (https://cdnapisec.kaltura.com/index.php/extwidget/preview/partner_id/956951/uiconf_id/43830551/entry_id/1 _jml6kkfk/embed/dynamic) (https://cdnapisec.kaltura.com/index.php/extwidget/preview/partner_id/956951/uiconf_id/43830551/entry_id/1 _jml6kkfk/embed/dynamic)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/154614)Jasmine Burgess (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/154614) Monday

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The ‘Life of Washington” Mural was painted in a San Francisco high school. The painted aroused scrutiny because many individuals saw the mural to be offensive to students of color.

What do you think should be done with the artwork?

The artwork should be removed from the high school. The argument of individuals who want the mural to remain is that

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it was painted by a legendary artist but because the mural represents the plight of African Americans and Native Americans, the mural should be removed. Students should not have to come to school every day and remember how unfortunate the lives of their ancestors were. Students attend school to learn and create a better life for themselves and the negative connotation of this mural may be upsetting and distract students from the reason they are attending school. I think the students at this high school should be able to decide how they want to cover the mural. They should have the opportunity to tap into their creativity and create a new mural that will be more positive and accepting of every student. This will help students of color to feel more included and create a unity amongst the students.

What message do you think the artwork conveys?

The message that the mural conveys is white supremacy. The mural shows raw images of slavery and Native Americans who have been killed by whites. It depicts slavery and violence and artwork like this should not exist, especially in a school.

Should the context in which people now view the artwork have an impact on the decision of what to do with it?

The way people view the artwork should have an impact on the decision of what to do with it. The world has changed a great deal and every individual is supposed to have the same rights and be accepted in the same ways. A mural like this only bring back negative memories of how the world use to be and how unequal things were depending on factors such as race. People of color should not be forced to remember how terrible things were. As we now move forward and try to work towards the true equality of every individual, murals like this are not relevant and should not be valued because of the negativity it exudes.

Does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message?

The historic value of the artwork does not require that the artwork be saved. The message of the artwork comes off as negative and offensive because it supports slavery and violence towards people of color simply because of the color of their skin. Students of color who attend this high school do not deserve to have to walk into their school everyday and feel the negativity that this mural conveys. Destroying the mural is not erasing history itself, because people of color are reminded daily of our history being that racism and inequality still exists.

Diaz, A. (2019, June 28). School to cover up George Washington mural that depicts violence and slavery. Retrieved July 13, 2020, from https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-george-washington-san-francisco-mural- 20190628-story.html (https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-george-washington-san-francisco-mural- 20190628-story.html)

Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking Critically. 3rd. Ed. Pearson: Boston, MA.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Tuesday

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Hello Jasmine, thank you for your post this week on the mural of your choice.

You pose somewhat of a valid point in that, “Students should not have come to school every day and

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Edited by Sonja Sheffield (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891) on Jul 14 at 1:28pm

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remember how unfortunate the lives of their ancestors were.” Can you give a definitive proposal on how students may be distracted from the negative connotation of the mural? What would that look like exactly? And how does having murals of this sort prohibit our students creativity? I really look forward to your thoughts on that

Now let me pose this question to you. You wrote that “[the mural] depict slavery and violence and artwork like this should not exist especially in a school”. Is there any place where it should be staged? And if it was placed elsewhere, would that have still a negative impact, or maybe even a positive impact by being someplace else? And finally, is that to say that anything that is seemingly offensive to anyone or any group of people should be removed and why?

When looking at cognitive biases this week and I like you to answer the question posed below by clicking on that link below to hear the question.

(https://cdnapisec.kaltura.com/index.php/extwidget/preview/partner_id/956951/uiconf_id/43830551/entry_id/1 _e1wjn1n3/embed/dynamic) Click video above or here to play video (https://cdnapisec.kaltura.com/index.php/extwidget/preview/partner_id/956951/uiconf_id/43830551/entry_id/1 _e1wjn1n3/embed/dynamic)

to answer the question posed. Reference Cherry, K., & Morin, A. (2020). What is cognitive bias? Cognitive Psychology. https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-a-cognitive-bias-2794963 (https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-a-cognitive-bias-2794963)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/138709)Britney Parkerton (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/138709) Tuesday

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Option 2: Indiana University Thomas Hart Benton mural

In 1933 Thomas Hart Benton painted the mural that is now hung in a classroom at Indiana University. Towards the back of the mural you can see the Ku Klux Klan burning the cross and holding American flags, a firetruck hose spraying water next to the burning cross. Then in the middle of the picture there is a circus, and in the front center of the picture there is an African American girl in a hospital bed with a nurse and people from the press knelt by her. This mural was painted after the KKK was brought the light in the 1920s for their corruption and access into all different levels of Indiana’s government.

What do you think should be done with the artwork (e.g., painted over, covered, destroyed, left as is in plain view, etc.)? Why?

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I believe this artwork should be left on display in the classroom. In my opinion, Benton was trying to depict Indiana moving away from the KKK. I believe this because in the background it appears the firetruck hose is trying to put out the burning cross. Then, in the front of the picture the African American girl is sitting in a hospital bed with a nurse, and what appears to be the press kneeling next to her. This seems to depict that they are almost apologizing and showing the little girl they are sorry, and they want to help her. The University Indiana Bloomington debates that, “ Benton’s depiction was intended to expose the Klan’s history in Indiana as hateful and corrupt; it does not honor or even memorialize individuals or the organization as a whole” (Robel, 2017).While adding the KKK depicts an ugly time in history for Indiana it also shows that changes were made there at that time, and the KKK was brought to light for their unethical beliefs.

Do you think the message is vague?

I would say that the message could be vague. According to Facione (2019), “at times intentional vagueness can be frustrating when precise, practical answers are what people desire” (pg. 75). While the author intended to depict Indiana becoming anti-Klan adding them into the displayed murals reminds people of an ugly time, and one that many do not want to be reminded of. The article from Indiana University Bloomington discussed that even back when Benton first displayed the mural, he faced backlash for reminding people of such a dark time in history. (Robel, 2017) On top of this if a somebody did not know the authors intent behind the mural it could be seen as racist, and in support of the KKK. People interpret things differently, especially when it comes to artwork.

Does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message?

Yes, I believe that this artwork has historical value, and that it should be saved. It is important to remember these dark times in history, and the fact that things like the immoral beliefs of the Ku Klux Klan were brought to light and abandoned by many. While there is still much room for improvement it is important to have these reminders around us to encourage us to grow, change, and educate ourselves on current day issues.

References

Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking Critically (3 Edition). Pearson, Inc.

Robel, L. (2017, September 29). On the Mural. Indiana University Bloomington. Retrieved from https://provost.indiana.edu/statements/archive/benton-murals.html (https://provost.indiana.edu/statements/archive/benton-murals.html)

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Tuesday

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Britney, thank you for your post for this week and sharing your thoughts on the mural of your choice.

You wrote how Benton was trying to depict Indiana moving away from the KKK. Do you believe that he was successful or not? And then you also provided the thoughts of the author Robel, 2017; what are your opinions about what he expressed? Do you think that is the case as he stated it?

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I’d like to pick your brain a little more to your statement of, “… The author intended to depict Indiana becoming anti-Klan adding them into the displayed murals reminds people of an ugly time, and one that many do not want to be reminded of.” Are you in agreement with his thoughts or do you have a rationale?

I appreciate your stance that there is definitely room for improvement and that we need to have these reminders, but how does that encourage us to grow? I love to hear your thoughts on that.

This week we looking at cognitive biases. Answer the question below by clicking on the link.

Click video above or here to play video (https://cdnapisec.kaltura.com/index.php/extwidget/preview/partner_id/956951/uiconf_id/43830551/entry_id/1 _7jg55jd2/embed/dynamic) to answer the question posed. Reference

(https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-a-cognitive-bias-2794963) Cherry, K., & Morin, A. (2020). What is cognitive bias? Cognitive Psychology. https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-a-cognitive-bias-2794963 (https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-a-cognitive-bias-2794963)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/102153)Caitlyn Pienkowski (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/102153) Tuesday

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I googled, “Indiana University Thomas Hart Benton mural”.

Thomas Hart Benton, modern artist and proponent of the Regionalist Art Movement in the United States, is a Missouri painter (Botts, 2011).

The mural that Thomas Hart Benton painted is that the Klansmen are seen alongside a reporter, photographer, and printer—a reference to the Pulitzer Prize-winning 1928 story that uncovered the KKK’s ties to the government and broke their political influence over the state (Cascone, 2017). This painting is shown in one of Indiana Universities lecture halls and students put up a petition to have it removed. The students petition states that exposing students and faculty of color to the image of the KKK stands in violation of the school’s diversity policy (Cascone, 2017). However, others are speaking up in support of the artwork, contending that Benton was looking to draw attention to the evils of the Klan (Cascone, 2017).

1) What do you think should be done with the artwork (e.g., painted over, covered, destroyed, left as is in plain view, etc.)? Why?

– I think the artwork should be taken down. In all honesty, I think the painting to be re-painted of the history

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that stands behind it. I think it should be taken down because regardless of what it was standing against, the subject is personally vulnerable and should not be specifically painted and displayed.

Should the context in which people now view the artwork have an impact on the decision of what to do with it?

– I believe it should have an impact because many people are speaking against it, which should count for something.

What message do you think the artwork conveys?

– I think the message displays the evilness of what has happened in history.

Does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message?

– I don’t necessarily think it should be destroyed, I assumed saved. However, I believe the message for that time should be re-painted in a way that it does not personally display the exact moments of what happened. I believe in people painting from their tragedies, as it helps for healing. However, most victims don’t display such exact vulnerability. I believe paintings that are viewing for histories tragedies should not be painted in such a tragic view, picture wise. It should symbolize more positive aspects of that timing with less violation exposure.

“Of course, to appreciate the advantages of visual mapping when analyzing more complicated passages, one must understand the mapping process” (Gittens, 2015).

References

Botts, K. (2011). Thomas hart benton: How mannerist painting influenced the midwest american mural painter. A Journal Of Undergraduate Research, 4, p28-36. Retrieved from https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=a9h&AN=76110498&site=ehost-live&scope=site (https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=a9h&AN=76110498&site=ehost-live&scope=site) .

Cascone, S. (2017). Students Rally to Remove a Thomas Hart Benton Mural Depicting the KKK at Indiana University. Retrieved from https://news.artnet.com/art-world/thomas-hart-benton-mural-indiana-1133765

(https://news.artnet.com/art-world/thomas-hart-benton-mural-indiana-1133765) .

Gittens, P.F.C. A. (2015-02-13T00:00:00.000+00:00). THINK Critically. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780133914351/ (https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780133914351/)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Tuesday

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Hello Caitlyn, thank you for your post and providing your thoughts on the mural you selected.

Okay so you think that the pain should be repainted, that’s interesting in that I never had anyone else say that. So tell me why should it be repainted and who would you propose to re-paint it? Would it be able to provide a painting that is accurate since anyone living during that time or any close to that time is long gone and how would someone today be able to properly be able to detect actual events? I look forward to hearing your answer on this one.

So you also think the painting should be taken down. Okay and what you mean when you wrote, “the subject is personally vulnerable”. Can you explain that a little bit?

To your point that you believe the message displays the evilness of what has happened in history, do you know of any mural works whether there on buildings or billboards or walls that depict evil today? If so, should those be destroyed as well? And I’m just trying to determine the validity of your proposal that because many people are speaking against it it should count for something. Can you explain that a little bit more with some detail?

And finally, you indicated, “I believe the message should be repainted in a way that does not personally display the exact moments of what happened.” Would you propose that it be repainted and depict false history?

Let’s look at some biases.

“This $50 shirt is too expensive for me”.

“We have this piece on sale. You can get it for 25% off”.

“That sounds like a good deal. I will buy it.”

What type of bias is this and how can we avoid it?

Reference: Holm, C. (2015). The 25 cognitive biases: Uncovering the myth of rational thinking. [Kindle version]. Retrieved from amazon.com

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/102153)Caitlyn Pienkowski (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/102153) Yesterday

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Hi Professor,

The painting, in my opinion, should be recreated into more of a monumental aspect, rather displaying the harshness of the history. It doesn’t seem offensive to any of those who aren’t directly affected so I don’t believe we take personal affect to it, when we should. If I can put it in perspective, it is as if someone made a raw painting of 9/11, every harsh detail that went on that day, I think it would be hard to look at since most of us remember that day. I don’t think any of us want to look at a painting of any harsh details of that day. We’d most likely want to see a memorial painting of that day, like a

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painting of the Tribute in Light display New York has. That is a beautiful remembrance of tragic history. I’ve seen on shows of survivors (of any kind) painting/drawing pictures of their tragedies, but in a beautiful remembrance.

As far as who exactly should re-paint it, I am quite unsure of that answer. It should be someone who was a victim or possibly a victims family member, if somehow someone can figure that out. I believe it would make sense for someone to paint their own tragedy of what happened, or have someone who relates to that situation if possible. I know that has happened many years ago so a victim would be impossible, however a relation to a victim would sound appropriate.

I say the subject is personally vulnerable for the people and family members who were affected by the history behind the painting. It’s a painting painted by a person who wasn’t there to be a victim of what happened. Even though I believe the intentions were to show the evilness of the KKK, it is a raw painting of that time which is hard for some to see, as it would make anyone emotional.

I do not know of any mural works that depict evil as of today, I would not doubt there isn’t any though. And if so, I don’t believe they should be destroyed but taken down and re-designed, remembering of more positive aspects.

I say that if majority of the people find something offensive, I believe that should count for the school to seriously think about taking the painting down as the people of their school wants to feel comfortable. The people who speak should count in what actually happens to the painting.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/99157)Wei Wen Chiang (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/99157) Tuesday

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What do you think should be done with the artwork? I chose the California Washington Mural. It is an image of Benjamin Washington pointing at the other side meanwhile there are a group of men with guns standing next to native American’s dead body. I think this painting should be painted over by something that has more educational meaning. I do not have anything against this mural, but I do not like the place it is at. School should be a place that promotes peace instead of violence and this painting gives me a sense that guns can solve the problems and concur the world. According to Moyer, the Vice President believes that students shouldn’t be exposed to violent imagery — that it’s degrading (Moyer, 2019).

Does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message? I believe the artwork should be saved only because its historic value and artwork value. I think this art should be saved but move to another place, like a museum or library, places for people that have strong interests in history. According to the textbook, the first rule of fair-minded interpretation is to be sensitive to context and purpose (Facione, 2016). It is important to look at the purpose of this mural, which is the historical meaning of

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it, instead of our own interpretation. But yet, not everyone can view it fairly.

Should the context in which people now view the artwork have an impact on the decision of what to do with it? People have different way of viewing things. I believe everyone’s voice should be heard regarding to making the decision of what to do with it.

What message do you think the artwork conveys? When I first saw this mural, I interpret it as simple artwork that the author realistically painted the history. I did not see the dead body next to the troops. After clicking into the article, I realized why this painting is controversial. I believe this artwork conveys the realistic part of the history; it is just telling a story.

Reference: Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking critically. 3 . Ed. Pearson:Boston, MA. Moyer, J. (2019, June 28). San Francisco school board votes to paint over mural of George Washington’s life. Retrieved July 14, 2020, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/san-francisco-board-of- education-votes-to-paint-over-schools-george-washington-mural/2019/06/27/77e00446-982f-11e9-b503- 8e101553431a_story.html

rd

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) 12:02pm

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Wei Wen, thank you for your post and sharing your thoughts on the mural of your choice.

I agree everybody is not going toeview any mural or artwork in the same manner.

The response to the question of should the context in which people now view the artwork have an impact on the decision of what to do with that, while I agree that is beneficial to everybody’s voice should be heard; but is that a strong argument that you proposed?

Identify the premises and the conclusion in each of the following arguments. Interpret each argument so that the premises give the best support for the conclusion. As we have indicated, arguments do not ordinarily occur in such simplified form, with every statement in a passage serving as either premise or a conclusion. This exercise will sharpen your skills at identifying argument parts.

1. If you buy a fur coat, then you are supporting the fur industry. If you are supporting the for industry, then you are encouraging cruel treatment of animals. If you buy a fur coat, you are encouraging cruel treatment of animals.

2. Every person should avoid keeping loaded guns around the house. All those who have the capacity to kill should avoid keeping loaded guns around the house. Every person has the

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capacity to kill.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/115159)Jessica Woods (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/115159) Tuesday

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Hello Professor and class

For this discussion, I chose to post about the Indiana University Thomas Hart Benton mural.

What do you think should be done with the artwork (e.g., painted over, covered, destroyed, left as is in plain view, etc.)? Why?

The mural in its entirety is a 250-foot display. The content in question is 1 section of the mural that depicts images of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). The KKK is a group that, for years, has exercised feelings of hate towards immigrants, Catholics, Jews, and African Americans. This group’s main goal is to push the idea of white supremacy. Knowing what this group stands for shows that this image has no place on a college campus. I believe the work should be taken down and placed in a museum that specializes in history. I do not like what the image projects, but it does show real moments in America. In its place, I believe there should be work that shows inclusivity and equality.

Should the context in which people now view the artwork have an impact on the decision of what to do with it?

Yes, it should. This mural was painted in 1933 and were placed on campus in 1939. (Cascone, 2017). Segregation in schools was declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court on May 17, 1954. (Domonoske, 2016). This was a time when racism was viewed as normal and acceptable. The KKK was founded in 1865, only months after slavery was abolished. It “became a vehicle for white southern resistance to the Republican Party’s Reconstruction-era policies aimed at establishing political and economic equality for Black Americans”. (History.com Editors, 2009). There are still instances of racism today, however, it is less accepted. Because this is an institute of higher learning, everyone should feel comfortable and accepted in an environment where they can concentrate, and not have to worry about an image displaying racism right next to them. There is a time and place for images such as these to be displayed such as a museum. A college lecture hall is not one of them.

Do you think there is ambiguity in the message?

Yes, I do. “The mural is a homage to the Indiana press for breaking the Klan’s grip on power in the state”. (Cascone, 2017). However, these images of the KKK have offended many people. In my opinion if you were to only look at this section of the mural it looks to show support of approval of the KKK and cross burning. Even if you were to take in the work as a whole, the message isn’t very clear. This is why I believe there has been so much controversy surrounding the mural.

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Do you think the message of the artwork is sufficiently important that the message alone requires that it be saved?

The artwork was meant to show the history of the state of Indiana. It depicts a time of racism and trying to move past it. Because of this, I do not believe it should be destroyed. Our history is important. You will never know where you’re going unless you know what you’ve come from. Not to mention all of the individuals who are historians. To them, this could be a vital part of their learning and research.

Cascone, S. (2017, October 31). Students Rally to Remove a Thomas Hart Benton Mural Depicting the KKK at Indiana University. Retrieved July 14, 2020, from https://news.artnet.com/art-world/thomas-hart-benton- mural-indiana-1133765

Domonoske, C. (2016, May 17). After 50-Year Legal Struggle, Mississippi School District Ordered To Desegregate. Retrieved July 14, 2020, from https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo- way/2016/05/17/478389720/after-50-year-legal-struggle-mississippi-school-district-ordered-to-desegregate

History.com Editors. (2009, October 29). Ku Klux Klan. Retrieved July 14, 2020, from https://www.history.com/topics/reconstruction/ku-klux-klan (https://www.history.com/topics/reconstruction/ku-klux-klan)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) 12:14pm

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Hello Jessica, thank you for sharing your thoughts on the mural you have chosen.

You wrote, that in its place of the mural that I work should be provided showing inclusivity and equality. This is what would that look like, and do you have any specific artwork that you can think of that would meet your criteria?

And I am very understanding of your point that segregation was deemed unconstitutional and that racism was viewed as normal and acceptable. However, always still not experiencing that today despite what was declared by the US Supreme Court? I look forward to your response.

And in your explanation that there is ambiguity in the message, can you define, describe, and/or explain specifically what the ambiguity might be?

How do you see the role of language in critical thinking? In other words, why is this concept so very important? What specifically does language give us?

Reference

Kirby, G., R. & Goodpaster, J. R. (2007) Thinking. (4 Ed.). Gateway Technical Collegeth

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/131729)Loc Nguyen (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/131729) Yesterday

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Hello Prof. and Class,

I picked option 1, California Washington mural at George Washington high school in San Francisco. There has been a lot of discussion whether to destroy the mural or not because some people are offended because in the mural there are some images that depicts violence and slavery.

The artwork should be left as is in plain view because it is historical and it shows us what our past was like. We learn history to not make the same mistakes as our predecessor made in the past. People shouldn’t be offended over every little things, especially when they did not live in those times.

I think the artwork conveys the struggle of the beginning of our country. Whether it was fighting off the British, owning slaves, befriending and killing the Natives, or the founding fathers creating the Declaration of Independence. Arnautoff presented to young minds the nuances and contradictions, the good parts and bad parts, of America’s founding history (Allen, 2019).

I do think the message of the artwork is sufficiently important that the message alone requires that it be saved. The artwork itself worth a thousands word, it tells the history our nation be it good or bad. As responsible citizens of this country, we need to embrace the good and avoid repeating the bad deeds of our predecessors, so that our country can continue moving forward.

I do not think the artists were being biased because they painted it like it is according to our history. I think the viewers might be bringing bias and prejudice to their opinions because they are offended, and their feelings are hurt because the artwork shows slavery, and the deaths of Native Americans. I am not because I take the artwork for what it is, a history.

References

Allen, T. B. (2019, July 6). San Francisco Board of Education: Anti-Art Fools. National Review.

What do you think should be done with the artwork? Why?

What message do you think the artwork conveys?

Do you think the message of the artwork is sufficiently important that the message alone requires that it be saved?

Do you think the artists were biased or prejudiced? If yes, explain specifics about the artwork that support your opinion. Do you think viewers might be bringing bias or prejudice to their opinions? Are you?

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https://www.nationalreview.com/2019/07/san-francisco-board-of-education-george-washington- murals/ (https://www.nationalreview.com/2019/07/san-francisco-board-of-education-george-washington-murals/)

Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking critically. 3 . Ed. Pearson:Boston, MA.rd

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) 12:25pm

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Loc, thank you for posting to this week’s discussion and providing your thoughts on the mural of your choice.

I’m smiling a little bit as I read your first paragraph as to what you believe should be done with the artwork. My smile is related to, “we learn history to not make the same mistakes as a predecessor made in the past.” So therefore, isn’t it sad that we are still making those same mistakes in 2020?

I love your position of, “we need to embrace the good and avoid repeating the bad… So our country can move forward”

Excellent point that you made regarding the artists being biased or prejudiced. When you wrote how “I think the reviewers might be bringing bias and prejudice to their opinions…; This was absolutely excellent and show that you have really thought this through. And it is another fair point because everyone has biases and prejudices inherent whether admitted or not.

Critical thinking is concerned with the evaluation of arguments. By evaluation I mean the determination of whether or not specific arguments are true or false; more or less plausible; more or less strong; or correct or incorrect. The importance of learning how to identify, analyze and evaluate arguments becomes clear when we reflect on the multitude of controversial issues, topics, and discussions taking place in our society today.

Before one can evaluate an argument, one must first be able to identify that an argument is being made, identify what its component parts are, and identify what its basic structure is. What I have prepared for you below is primarily a supplement to what we have been doing in class and what you have been reading in the text. I simply want to boil down the process of identification and analysis into some simple steps or a step-by-step procedure. Before we do this, however, there are a few points to keep in mind.

Ask yourself, am I supposed to be persuaded to do or believe something here? If so, am I supposed to be persuaded by evidence or something else?

How do we figure out which of the following is an argument is which is not? The answer may jump out at you, and appear obvious, but there is value to looking at the obvious answers in order to figure out how to do the less obvious problems.

A. Of course, Trump is the legitimate President of the USA. If you don’t agree with me, you are a traitor

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to your country. As we all know, traitors are scum and deserve to be executed.

B. The legitimate President of the USA must be elected by a majority of the electors of the electoral college. Bush was appointed to his office by the actions of a majority of members of the Supreme Court; hence, Bush is not the legitimate President of the USA.

C. Trump is the President of the USA. A great deal of controversy surrounds his Presidency because of the problems with vote counting in Florida during the election. Michael Warren, the President’s brother was, and still is, the Governor of Florida. There are some who believe that Trump is not a legitimate President.

Reference

Rudinow, J. & Barry, V. (2002). An invitation to critical thinking. (4 Ed.).Harcourt. San Francisco, CAth

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/148682)Ashley White (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/148682) Yesterday

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Hi Professor and Class!

I chose option 2 and googled the Indiana University Thomas Hart mural.

What message do you think the artwork conveys?

There are many different things going on in this mural. The Ku Klux Klan is in the background with a burning cross along with a firetruck trying to put out burning flames. This appears to me to symbolize trying to end the Ku Klux Klan. There is a young African American girl surrounded by a reporter and a nurse as if they are trying to comfort her. It also looks like there is a young Caucasian girl in a hospital bed beside her possibly symbolizing that they are equal and deserve the same care. There is also planes flying above with a circus going on that maybe indicates the chaos going on at that time.

What do you think should be done with the artwork?

I think they should keep the artwork. It is a piece of history. Its telling a story.

Should the context in which the artwork was created (the Great Depression of the 1930s in the case of the Benton and Arnautoff murals) have an impact on the decision of what to do with the artwork?

Yes, its a part of our history. The artist was portraying a painting of what was going on during that time. The paintings tell a story of the past.

Do you think the artists were biased or prejudiced? If yes, explain specifics about the artwork that

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support your opinion. Do you think viewers might be bringing bias or prejudice to their opinions? Are you?

I don’t feel the artist was biased or prejudiced. I feel he was painting a mural of history at that time. In the article I read Thomas Hart didn’t have a reputation of being that way. In 1935, he took part in a widely publicized exhibition, “An Art Commentary on Lynching,” organized by the NAACP and staged at the Arthur Newton Gallery in New York; and in 1940 he explicitly denounced racism of any sort(Adams, 2017).

References:

Adams, H. (2017, November 03). In Defense of Keeping the Indiana University Mural That Depicts (But Doesn’t Glorify) the KKK. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/misguided-campaign-remove-thomas-hart-benton-mural- 180967080/ (https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/misguided-campaign-remove-thomas-hart-benton-mural- 180967080/)

Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking critically. 3 . Ed. Pearson:Boston, MA.rd

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) 12:37pm

Edited by Sonja Sheffield (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891) on Jul 16 at 12:41pm

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Ashley, thank you for your post for this week and providing your thoughts on the mural of your choice.

Yes there most definitely are a lot of things going on in that particular mural.

I understand how many individuals use the terms, “I feel”. However, just bear in mind when one is critically thinking or reasoning, feelings don’t really help in argument. Can you explain a little more detail as to why you don’t agree that the artist was either biased or prejudiced, and how do you know?

Let’s look at determining arguments and recognizing premises and conclusions.

Reference

Tittle, P. (2011). Critical thinking: An appeal to reason. Routledge: NY.

1. It’s puzzling that Taffi (the canine I live with) doesn’t play with toys more often, given that she has her own toy box. And it’s overflowing. But then, she has me!

2. We know he’s a real man because he threw a refrigerator across the room during a fight.” 3. “The Soviet pledge not to be the first to use nuclear weapons goes to confirm that the USSR is

against any nuclear aggression and that its military doctrine is, indeed, a defensive one in nature.”

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/129972)Brittany Varnes (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/129972) Yesterday

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Hi Professor and Class,

Option 1: California Washington mural.

The board of education at George Washington High school decided to have Victor Arnautoff’s painting covered. The decision to paint over the “The Life of George Washington” mural was reached upon after complaints by activists who claimed that the painting was a nuisance to learners, especially those of color. The board’s decision evoked different opinions from Americans as some termed the move as promoting social justice at the plight of the United States history; while others praised the decision for doing away with a racism-imbued painting.

What do you think should be done with the artwork? Why?

The “Life of George Washington” mural should have been left as was in the school’s lobby because it was an emblem of the history of the United States. The painting depicted the life of America’s founding father and first president. It also showed the social injustices that the natives and the African Americans were put through. The mural could have served to teach the latter-day generation of Americans about the evils of racial segregation. Additionally, history students could have enhanced their social history from the painting. According to Bogart (2019), murals not only capture heroic and evil deeds but also teach about the biography of people in them.

What message do you think the artwork conveys?

Victor Arnautoff’s painting conveys several messages. First is the oppression against the minority in the society, which is depicted by the platoon that is approaching the unarmed natives. Slavery is the other message that is conveyed by the mural. This is depicted by the dead slave lying on the ground. The painting also has the message of poor leadership as demonstrated by the founding fathers; they seem to go about their business even as the army alienates the natives from their lands while killing the slaves.

Do you think the message is vague?

I think the message that is conveyed by the mural is vague given the different explanations that exist. Those in support of the mural and those against it do not seem to agree on why Arnautoff painted the mural at the school. Historians defend the mural for its educational value, whereas activists want it painted over because it promotes racism. Each group seems to defend its reason to have the mural preserved or painted over while refusing to find out the motive of Victor Arnautoff.

Does the artistic/ historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of the message?

The mural should be saved to preserve its artistic value and Victor Arnautoff’s ingenuity. It could be used to teach new artists about the painting techniques that were in use during the artist’s time. Arnautoff’s painting should also be saved because of its historic value. The images depict a significant phase in American history that could be used to insight learners into thinking critically about the current social problems like racism in

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America.

References

Michele H. Bogart. (2019). The Problem with Canceling the Arnautoff Murals. Retrieved from https: /www.nybooks.com/daily/2019/09/16/the-problem-with-canceling-the-arnautoff-murals/

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) 12:47pm

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Hello Brittany, thank you for your post this week and sharing your thoughts on the mural of your choice.

Out of curiosity, you know that the students want to mural removed. You indicated that the mirror should be left as is because it is an emblem of the history of the United States. What are your thoughts about the students wanting it removed and what you think their purpose is for the rationale is? I look forward to your response.

And I appreciate you providing a response saying that the mural is vague but it would appear that you have come up with that decision because you wrote, “… Given the different explanations that exist”. What are your thoughts, not those of someone else, as to get the message based on your looking at the mural is vague?

Let’s look at determining arguments and recognizing premises and conclusions. Provide the premises and conclusions in the following:

1. Burglars generally avoid the houses known to have guns in them. And people have a right to defend what’s theirs. Consequently, we should legalize guns; that way, people can defend themselves against burglars.

2. Tuition fees should be lowered, due to the scarcity of jobs. Most students don’t want to work while they’re going to school anyway. And parents don’t always give their kids enough money for tuition and all the other stuff they want. I mean, you can’t expect students to study all the time, they want to have fun, they want to party, see movies, listen to music. And all of that costs money.

3.

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/127931)Adilene Alvarez (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/127931) Yesterday

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Hello Class,

Option 1: California Washington Mural

-What do you think should be done with the artwork (e.g., painted over, covered, destroyed, left as is in plain view, etc.)? Why? From my point of view, I think the artwork should be covered or removed. It is offensive and for some students it could be uncomfortable to see. A school is no place to show artwork like this. I understand history is taught in school, but it should not be a daily reminder of the pain many suffer. It shows history that until this day we are trying to overcome. Racism is real.

– Should the context in which people now view the artwork have an impact on the decision of what to do with it? Yes, I do not think the artist meant to do harm when painting the artwork. It still is a sensible topic for many of us. However, all voices should be heard to decide what to do with it. Everyone has a different interpretation. According to the textbook, interpretation, is to achieve as much accuracy and precision as may be required or as may be possible for the purpose and the context at hand.

-What message do you think the artwork conveys? The message of the artwork is the American history from the colonizer’s perspective. Colonialism, “It occurs when one nation subjugates another, conquering its population and exploiting it, often while forcing its own language and cultural values upon its people” (Blakemore, 2019). Although, it is part of history, it should not be a daily reminder.

– Does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message? No one could change the past. But this type of artwork should be presented inside a history book or a museum. A place where we choose to go and learn from our history. On another note, it is honoring to learn all what we have overcome throughout the years.

References Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking critically. 3rd. Ed. Pearson:Boston, MA. Blakemore, E. (2019). What is colonialism? National Geographic.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) 8:36am

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Hello Adilene, thank you for posting to the discussion this week in providing critical reasoning to the

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Edited by Sonja Sheffield (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891) on Jul 16 at 8:41am

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mural of your choice.

In your post, when you wrote “it is offensive…” what makes it offensive to you?

You also wrote, “it is still a sensible topic for most of us”.

What you mean by sensible? And don’t forget moving forward, if you quote someone, you need to have a citation. You wrote “according to the textbook…” And this requires an in text citation.

Putting an argument that you hear or read into your own words is an important step in critical reasoning. for the passage below write what you take to be the author’s main point and list any claims the author makes that support this point. Set aside for the moment your own position on the issues raised and try to capture the author’s position as best you can. It is often useful to simplify passage eliminating what is inessential in simplifying cumbersome statements.

⦁ The abortion issue seems to be in the news practically every week. There are rallies and political speeches. Various candidates are jockeying for political advantage by embracing one side or the other on this controversial issue. Abortion raises some fundamental issues that bring into conflict our very conception of humanity in our ideals of liberty. In spite of the importance of the topic, abortion should not be made the central issue in political campaigns. Candidates for public office different in a variety of ways, some of which are more important to the state of the country than abortion policy is. If we do not adequately deal with problems such as medical coverage and crime, both our ideals of humanity and our liberty will be threatened. There should be no “litmus test,” no single criterion, in judging people for public life in a complex and increasingly vulnerable world.

Reference

Moore, B. N. & Parker, R. (2004). Critical thinking. 7th ed.McGraw Hill: Boston, MA

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/84538)Scott O’Malley (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/84538) Yesterday

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I decided to go with option 1 and discuss the California Washington mural for my discussion post. Before looking at the mural, I looked at it through google image. Even before reading the article, I came to a conclusion that the mural should be removed because I feel it doesn’t belong in a school. I feel it’s not right for the school because it represents death and brutal treatment of Native Americans. In this situation I would try and preserve it to put in a museum as it is still history. For those who want to preserve it, I believe they should pay for the new wall so it can and then follow my lead and have it placed in a museum. For the question do I think the message of the artwork is sufficiently important that the message alone requires that it be saved, like I said before I believe it is worth saving to be

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Diaz, A. (2019, June 28). School to cover up George Washington mural that depicts violence and slavery. Los Angeles Times. https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-george-washington-san-francisco-mural- 20190628-story.html.

placed in a museum but not at a school. I think this painting can be ambiguity because everyone has a different opinion. One person can say it’s just about the past, another can say it’s about George Washington and another can say it depicts racism. To answer the question does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message? I believe if it is too costly to preserve, and the only option is to paint over the mural, then I am okay with the decision. I feel the history of the painting isn’t as historic as other pieces.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/64315)Dijana Rahmanovic (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/64315) Yesterday

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The monument I chose to write about is a very controversial topic and I contemplated writing about it because I know that some of my classmates may not side with my opinion. Nevertheless, it is my truth to tell, as my family lived through a war in which a man who committed atrocities during this time is now being praised through a monument in my own state. The monument in question is that of Serbian General Dragoljub “Draza” Mihajlovic located in Third Lake, Illinois. The monument was created by the local Serbian community and Serbian cultural center of that area. Mihajlovic is considered to be a Martyr for the Serbian people, as he fought to establish a Serbian National state against German invaders during World War II. However, the tactics used by Mihajlovic included carrying out massacres against Croatian, Muslim, and Serbian populations that refused his agenda. His rebels also created religious and national hatred among the neighboring populations.

There are little to no news articles on the topic. One of the only ones I was able to find was on a local news website called UrbanMatter.com which had an article describing the 5 most controversial monuments around Chicago, this one being one of them. The article describes Mihajlovic as a man who, “sought to create a Greater Serbia through ethnic cleansing during WWII perpetrated vis his Chetnik ideology” (Urban Matter, 2017).

Because of the limited information on this monument, I thought it would be a good idea to share an article that describes the problem this monument is trying to suppress. A book on the Chetnik Movement gives a thorough timeline of its rise and fall, naming Mihajlovic as the father of the movement. According to this book, the Chetnik Movement initially created to resist Axis powers entering the country at the time of WWII, but quickly turned sour when its intentions changed to promote Serbian Nationalism and ethnic cleansing of minority populations in the country and surrounding region.

I think the statue should be taken down. It is offensive to the large population of Balkan people displaced throughout Chicago who have lost loved ones to not only this war, but the war of 1991 which was fueled even more by the so-called “Chetnik ideology” referred to in the news article. There are so many more great

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Serbian people to commemorate who did not partake in the destruction of minority populations in ex- Yugoslavia. I believe this monument conveys a message of dangerous nationalism. The only ambiguity I believe there to be in this monument is the ignorance of the whole story of this man’s legacy. On the one hand, he believed in the freedom of his people. However, it was at the cost of others’ freedoms. Freedom does not exist if we have to break down others to get to it. I do not think that the historic value of this monument requires that it be saved regardless of the message. I believe that it is precisely because of the history of it that it must be taken down. Maybe creating a new monument in its place that commemorates the efforts of those who wanted to protect the union and brotherhood of the different populations in ex-Yugoslavia would convey a much more significant memory of the past, as well as an example of what we should strive for now and in the future.

References

Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking critically. 3 . Ed. Pearson:Boston, MA.

Milazzo, M. J. (1975). The Chetnik movement & the Yugoslav resistance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Urban Matter (2017). 5 most controversial monuments around Chicago. Retrieved from: https://urbanmatter.com/chicago/controversial-monuments-chicago/ (https://urbanmatter.com/chicago/controversial-monuments-chicago/)

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/95642)Aliyah Castleberry (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/95642) Yesterday

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Professor and Class,

Today I am going to be discussing the Thomas Hart Benton mural that is located inside of Indiana University. The artwork in question is a part of a part of a mural that is composed of 22 separate panels. Before we get started, I do want to point out that painted art, just like statues or monuments are a part of the history that has led us to where we are today. Whether we like the history or not, it is important to remember and teach future generations where we came from so that hopefully we will not repeat our past.

Personally, I feel that the artwork should be left alone. There is one controversial aspect of the artwork where there is a painted KKK member scene, but apart from that, everything else is deemed to be “appropriate”. But here’s the thing, the art piece was not meant to be offensive or demeaning, the piece was made to document the cultural and industrial history of Indiana. When documenting history, there are always going to be parts

What do you think should be done with the artwork (e.g., painted over, covered, destroyed, left as is in plain view, etc.)? Why?

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that we don’t like, but I do think it is important to document everything and not leave anything out.

To answer this question, I do think that the context in which the art was created should have an impact on the decision of what to do with the artwork. Again, it all comes down to history. If we just put things away never to be seen again, eventually they are forgotten about. On the other hand, I do not agree that the controversial portion of this panel was located inside of a classroom, which is why I am glad that the school decided to leave the painting and move the classroom. Moving the classroom allows for the historical piece to remain in the open, but it also allows students to choose if they would like to view it or not. When Benton created the mural, his intents were not malicious. At the time, his intent was to expose the Klan’s actions as that of corrupt and hateful, it was not to honor them or praise their actions.

I do believe that the context in which people view the artwork should have an impact on what to do to with it to an extent. I do not agree with the destruction or removal of art or history just because it makes us uncomfortable. Historically, some of the most successful movements have come from an uncomfortable place. Again, I do not think that the mural should have been located inside of a classroom, but I do think it is important for people to have the option to view it.

I do think that the historic value of the artwork that requires that it be saved considering that the piece was made in order to document the history of Indiana, it was not made just to look pretty. Like I said before, I think that the art should be in an area where people can choose to view it, not in a classroom where they are forced to look at it. If the piece in question was supporting slavery, I would say that it should be taken down.

Thank you,

Aliyah Castleberry

References:

Benton Murals. (2017, September 29). Retrieved from https://provost.indiana.edu/statements/archive/benton- murals.html

Dwight Adams and Holly V. Hays. (2017, September 30). IU: Room with mural of KKK rally will no longer be a classroom. Retrieved from https://www.indystar.com/story/news/2017/09/29/indiana-university-no- longer-use-room-mural-showing-kkk-rally-classroom/717308001/ (https://www.indystar.com/story/news/2017/09/29/indiana-university-no-longer-use-room-mural-showing-kkk-rally- classroom/717308001/)

Should the context in which the artwork was created (the Great Depression of the 1930s in the case of the Benton and Arnautoff murals) have an impact on the decision of what to do with the artwork?

Should the context in which people now view the artwork have an impact on the decision of what to do with it?

Does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message?

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Facione, P. A., & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Think critically (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson.

History. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://murals.sitehost.iu.edu/history/index.html

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) 8:49am

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Hello Aliyah, thank you for posting to the discussion this week in providing critical reasoning to the mural of your choice.

While you indicated that the artwork should be left alone, you then indicated where the KKK members seen was controversial. Can you explain a bit further why the KKK seemed should not have been included in the artwork? I love your point about documenting history and even though we don’t like the documentation sometimes; that is very true. Often times individuals do not like reality.

You are the only individual that I have ever seen indicate that moving the classroom was a good idea. I like that decision pretty much. And the part about this artwork being in an area where people can make a choice to view it or not is well thought out.

Let’s look at the anatomy of arguments by identifying premises and conclusions

When someone gives reasons to support a point of view, that person is usually offering an argument. You encourage arguments in your reading and in your conversations with others, and you commonly offer arguments to support your own beliefs. When you are presented with an argument, you can take the opportunity to decide whether the reasons given are good enough to warrant incorporating the point of view that is being advanced into your own set of beliefs. To make this decision, you need to clearly understand the argument and then evaluated.

Since an argument gives reasons (one or more) in support of a point of view, both of the following examples which surely count as arguments. In each of them, at least one reason is given to support a point of view.

Put the following exercises into standard form, indicating premise(s) and conclusion.

1. Any friend of mind deserves my respect. Ed is a friend of mine. Therefore, Ed deserves my respect.

2. If your mind were organized, your desk would be organized. Your desk isn’t organized. It follows that your mind is an organized.

Reference

Moore, B. N. & Parker, R. (2004). Critical thinking. 7th ed. McGraw Hill: Boston, MA

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/145323)Ashlyn Nichols (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/145323) Yesterday

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Hello Everyone,

Option 1: California Washington mural:

Q1: What do you think should be done with the artwork (e.g., painted over, covered, destroyed, left as is in plain view, etc.)? Why?

This mural explains the “Life of George Washington” which it captures within the painting. “The mural was commissioned by the U.S. government under a New Deal-era art program in 1936 and was painted by well-known artist Victor Arnautoff, who died in 1979” (School to cover up George Washington mural that depicts violence and slavery, 2019). Personally I think it should be kept on the wall in reference to what happened in the past. We as a community need to realize we can’t change history or other peoples actions. We are now living in the 21st century, and can’t be caught up in history that no one can alter.

Q2: Does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message?

I believe if it can be saved it should be saved. In remembrance of the amazing artist that spent countless hours on a historical painting. The family and friends of Victor Arnautoff wouldn’t want to see his artwork thrown away because a handful of people disagree with the mural. Nowadays hardly anyone agree, and I highly doubt the artist intentions were to be racist, he was simply full-filling a job. A museum would also want this magnificent artwork for their collection. Symbolizing what happens in history, and how different things are today.

Q3: What message do you think the artwork conveys?

The artwork can definitely be taken two different ways from an individuals perspective. I look at the painting and think of the history behind it. Others look at the painting and think of racism and slavery. “In one of the murals, George Washington points westward over the dead body of a Native American. Another depicts Washington’s slaves, hunched over, working in the fields of Mount Vernon” (Pogash, C., 2019). The message conveys the history we fought through t get what we have today.

Q4: Do you think the message is vague?

Yes, I believe the message is vague. I can tell what is happening in the pictures to an extent but not in full detail. I personally would need a quick history lesson to be reminded what all is going on in the mural. Although if you were well educated in history you could definitely pick out the different messages being conveyed. The artist did his best work with painting the “Life of George Washington” mural.

References:

Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking critically. 3 . Ed. Pearson:Boston, MA.

Pogash, C. (2019, April 11). These High School Murals Depict an Ugly History. Should They Go? Retrieved

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July 15, 2020, from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/11/arts/design/george-washington-murals-ugly-history- debated.html

School to cover up George Washington mural that depicts violence and slavery. (2019, June 28). Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-george-washington-san-francisco-mural- 20190628-story.html

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/154119)Juliana Shahly (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/154119) Yesterday

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Option 1- <California Washington mural>. You will find numerous reports concerning a California school district that voted to paint over a mural in the high school. The Life of Washington was painted by Depression-era artist Victor Arnautoff.

1. What do you think should be done with the artwork (e.g., painted over, covered, destroyed, left as is in plain view, etc.)? Why? I feel that the California Washington mural should be left as it is because the mural is historic. The mural is based on slavery and other historical factors that took place. It reminds us how tough life was back in the day and how much history has changed since then. Also, it was the masterpiece of a Depression-ara artist Victor Arnautoff who was telling his story by painting the mural since he probably experienced what was going on. I feel that every artist has a story in regard to what is being painted, which makes the artwork fascinating. According to Facione and Gittens (2016), messages that are shown in images are better at communicating than what is shown in text.

2. What message do you think the artwork conveys? The message that the artwork conveys seems to be slavery and war. For example, in the artwork, Washington was with slaves, and a dead Native American man was lying down at the feet of white settlers (Pogash, 2019). Also, this artwork shows that there could have been a war between the white settlers and Native Americans.

3. Do you think the message is vague? I believe the message is a little vague because although it shows that there is violence and slavery, there was not much to the story. For instance, by looking at the mural, there was nothing that was seen as to why the violence escalated among the white settlers and the Native Americans or what the slaves’ role was in the painting. The image only shows slaves working from what I can see in the artwork.

4. Do you think the message of the artwork is sufficiently important that the message alone requires that it be saved? I do believe that the message of the artwork is sufficiently important that the message alone requires for it to be saved because I believe the artist is trying to tell their side of the story. However, the message was a little vague as to the purpose of the violence that occurred in the mural. Also, I believe that the mural should be saved because every painting has a thousand words in the message that is being conveyed.

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References

Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking critically. 3 . Ed. Pearson:Boston, MA.

Pogash, Carol. (2019). The High School Murals Depict an Ugly History. Should They Go? The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/11/arts/design/george-washington-murals- ugly-history-debated.html (https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/11/arts/design/george-washington-murals-ugly- history-debated.html)

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/138071)Danin Sibert (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/138071) Yesterday

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I decided to focus on Option 1, the California Washington mural. It is a mural in a high school in the San Francisco Unified School District that shows slaves being sold and a dead Indian surrounded by white settlers (Diaz). It was painted by Victor Arnautoff who was a well-known political painter that died in 1979. “Arnautoff’s progress as an artist and the evolution of his political views exemplify a long and complex process where art and politics are intricately interconnected” (Mello, 2018, p 426).

What do you think should be done with the artwork (e.g., painted over, covered, destroyed, left as is in plain view, etc.)? Why? This was a hard question for me to answer because I am both a native American and I appreciate art. Overall, I do think the mural should be covered up because although it is our history and it should not be forgotten, I also think it does not need to be remembered every day. A better setting for this mural if it still needed to be at the school, would be in a history class or in a library where students can educate themselves on the history behind the painting.

Does the artistic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message? I think that the artwork should be saved, but unfortunately because of the way that it was painted it requires that it either gets painted over or panels placed over it, so it is unable to be saved. Although they are unable to take the artwork off the walls to appreciate in a different setting, it can be appreciated by having either photographs or a replica made. If this were to happen, wherever its new home is (in the school, museum, etc.) there should be a corresponding plaque explaining the history behind the picture.

Do you think the message of the artwork is sufficiently important that the message alone requires that it be saved? I think the message behind the mural is an important one and should be remembered. I do not think the setting was right for this mural though. If this mural were on a canvas in a museum, I do not think there would be anything wrong with it. Art is a great way to show history (or to fake history into what you want it to be) and can be quite impactful to show how graphic certain situations were.

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Do you think there is ambiguity in the message? I do think there is some ambiguity in the message. The textbook described problematic ambiguity as, “the characteristic of a word or expression, which can have multiple meanings such that uncertainty about exactly which meaning applies in a given context for a given purpose results in troublesome misunderstandings” (Facione & Gittens, 2016, p. 72). Problematic ambiguity is evident in the mural because although I am assuming the artist painted the mural to show a part of United States history, it can be interpreted as something other than a piece of history. Some may look at this painting and view it as a horrible reminder of what their ancestors went through or as a piece of racist propaganda instead of as a reminder that we need to change our ways. The artist of this mural is not Native American, which could also be problematic to some when debating the meaning behind the mural.

References

Diaz, A. (2019, June 28). School to cover up George Washington mural that depicts violence and slavery. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-george- washington-san-francisco-mural-20190628-story.html (https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln- george-washington-san-francisco-mural-20190628-story.html)

Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking critically. 3rd. Ed. Pearson:Boston, MA.

Mello, W. (2018). Victor Arnautoff and the Politics of Art. Journal of American History, 105(2), 426-427. doi:10.1093/jahist/jay218

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/152005)Melissa Shetto (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/152005) Yesterday

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Hello Professor and Class,

For this week’s assignment I chose the California Washington Mural for my discussion.

The Washington mural is a painting covering several walls in the George Washington High School’s lobby walls. CBS news reporter Joe Vazquez (2019) reports that Victor Arnautoff painted the 13 panels, 1,600 square foot “Life of Washington” mural, in 1936. He was commissioned by the New Deals Art program, which was funded by the U. S government.

What do you think should be done with the artwork (e.g., painted over, covered, destroyed, left as is in

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I think the mural should be left as it is in plain sight, I say this because in as much as it hurts the individuals whose ancestors are depicted in a demeaning manner it still remains to be a part of the American history and covering the mural will not change the past. And as much as it is disheartening and painful, it was a sad reality of that era. We should not deny the future generations the opportunity to witness where their country and homeland came from. As a matter of fact the mural can serve as a thought provoking piece that will bring many to enlightenment over the kind of individuals they seek to be as a result of drawing lessons from the controversial artwork, such as respect for all human lives and their right to be treated equally, respecting people from all races or ethnic backgrounds and what they believe and stand for and many more deeper lessons.

Gelber (1979) stated that the artists rarely attributed any great philosophical implications to the mural programs, but accepted them as projects that would enliven public places. Therefore to consider the cover up of this artwork based on what the hidden meaning the artist wished to portray would be misleading in making the right decision on whether to cover the wok up or not.

I stand as an African American who believes that we do not change our current life circumstances by covering up and destroying works that are actual parts of our Nation’s history simply because they are offensive to us as a people.

I believe that the best way to approach such works of art is by changing the narrative; hence changing how we choose to interpret the artwork, let us change the value of the message. We can decide that the message conveyed in that mural is about people persevering and surviving hardships in and era that could have seen them completely wiped out.

According to the CBS news article by Joe Vazquez (2019) the late painter’s grandson says the artist included Native and African Americans to provoke a conversation about the real history of the United States. “He was naturally rocking the boat a little bit,” said Peter Arnautoff. “So he would be abhorred to hear the reaction that they’re getting today”.

We can therefore decide to use it as a strong reminder of what our forefathers experienced, endured and overcame, and make it a source of strength for us to become better and stronger than we have ever been. We can also choose to teach the younger generation to be proud and not allow a painting define who they are as a people, instead they can face such artworks as a source of inspiration to stand up for their rights and for the rights of those that remain defenseless in our modern world.

No, the context in which people now view the artwork seem to be stemming from a negative context and it should not be allowed to have an impact on the decision of whether or not to cover the mural. What is

plain view, etc.)? Why?

Should the context in which people now view the artwork have an impact on the decision of what to do with it?

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happening right now already proves that we as a society have already chosen to change the message depicted in the artwork. Many have already decided that the message is painful, insulting and demeaning without acknowledging that it has preserved a glimpses of history events that some can only imagine about. This means we have absolutely ceased to see the painting as simply a memory of a past life in which a completely different generation existed.

Messages an individual gets from any type of artwork can greatly differ for that of another person because we each have our own way of unpacking and comprehending a message. Therefore the message I derived from the mural was a shocking yet intriguing account of past events presented to me in form of a painting that acknowledges the existence of slavery and the displacement of the Native American people during the American Revolution. For me it anchors my understanding of the experiences my forefathers went through. It also broadened my curious of what really happened in history beyond what is written in the textbooks and other scholarly materials.

As many critics have pointed out, the artist behind the mural not only painted a depiction of life during the “Depression Era” he also subtlety criticized the highly celebrated father of this nation by showing us what really happened behind the scenes during that time of the American Revolution.

Julia Wick, a reporter from Los Angeles Times points out that the murals undoubtedly depict the ugly history of American racism (Wick, 2019). I agree with the reporter’s statement that the artwork only showed what happened, it conveys the messages of brutal treatment, adversities and struggles the Native American and African American forefathers experienced. It also shows the sheer will the Native and African American had for survival and their willingness to promote peace by establishing treaties. The mural shows the braveness of the Native American people because they defended their lands despite the ultimate outcome.

Yes, the artwork needs to be saved despite it’s message and the feelings it provokes because simply erasing evidence of a brutal past does not change the actual events that took place in history. Gelber (1979) mentions that the murals in public buildings provided the artists with a natural medium to express their American scene.

According to New York Times reporter Carol Pogash (2019), some historians and school alumni, see the mural as an immersive history lesson too.

It is our duty to teach the younger generation that we do not erase a representation of history simply because it is upsetting to us. We need to show them that being strong is all about challenging and facing our worst

What message do you think the artwork conveys?

Does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message?

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fears and realities by acknowledging them and the role they serve.

References

Vazquez, J. (2019, August 2). Controversial George Washington Mural At San Francisco School Gets Public Viewing After Vote To Cover Up. CBS News Bay Area. Retrieved from https://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2019/08/02/controversial-george-washington-mural-san-francisco- school-cover-up/ (https://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2019/08/02/controversial-george-washington-mural-san- francisco-school-cover-up/)

Gelber, S. (1979). Working to Prosperity: California’s New Deal Murals. California History. Vol. 58 Retrieved from https://online.ucpress.edu/ch/article/58/2/98/31799 (https://online.ucpress.edu/ch/article/58/2/98/31799)

Wick, J. (2019, August 13). What will become of San Francisco’s Controversial George Washington mural?. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2019-08-13/san-francisco- mural-controversy-george-washington (https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2019-08-13/san-francisco- mural-controversy-george-washington)

Pogash, C. (2019, April 11). These High School Murals Depict and Ugly History Should they go?. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/11/arts/design/george-washington- murals-ugly-history-debated.html (https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/11/arts/design/george-washington- murals-ugly-history-debated.html)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/144435)Lorika Roche (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/144435) Yesterday

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The Monument to the Women of the Southern Confederacy was presented as a memorial to Jacksonville, Florida on October 1915. The statue depicts a seated mother, embracing two young children, with a book on her lap. Another sculpture was been added to the site depicting a young woman holding the “fallen flag” which is the flag of the Confederacy. The monument has been subjected to political debate by residents of the city of Jacksonville for many years, but the debates came to a head after the events of Charlottesville, Virginia in August 2017. I think the statue should be removed from public property and placed in a museum. It is disrespectful to the black residence of Jacksonville, to black United States citizens as a whole, because the Confederacy was fighting for the “right” to own slaves. It glorifies people that wanted to continue to

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dehumanize another race by painting confederate supporters as divine and noble. Leaving the memorial in a public space and having 54 percent of white, Jacksonville voters (Monroe, N, 2017) oppose removing it is a mockery to the black community.

The context behind this memorial is the United States Civil War, 1861 – 1865, which was fought over slavery, the federal power to end slavery, and politicians holding too much power (American Battlefield Trust, 2020). The Confederacy wanted to be able to keep slaves which eventually led to the secession of eleven states and then the civil war. The context should definitely impact the decision to remove the statues. There is nothing noble about supporting the party that wanted to keep slavery alive, especially with today’s political economy. The black community is already subjected to systematic racism and discrimination on things as simple as a hairstyle, there is no need to have relics that glorify white supremacy. Fortunately, current protests have an impact on the decision of what to do with the statues. After protestors removed a different Confederate statue overnight at Hemming Park, the Mayor, Lenny Curry, has made the decision to remove all Confederate monuments in the Jacksonville area. This decision includes the Monument to the Women of the Southern Confederacy (Gancarski, A.G, 2020).

I am not too sure on whether or not the artist was biased. The sculptor of the monument was Allen Newman, who was a Union supporter but also a sought-after sculpture. However, the sculpture was commissioned years after the civil war ended. Newman has several known memorials that depict Confederacy generals, but he also has known works for union generals as well. Newman “approached the subject [monument] from this attitude of reverence” (SVC Kirby Smith, 1977). This is conflicting information, but Newman could have been biased. The ones who requested the monument were biased as they were members of the Florida Division of the United Confederacy Veterans. Viewers of the monuments are biased as well. As aforementioned, the black community views the monuments as disrespectful to the memory of the enslaved African Americans. On the other hand, I have seen many members of the southern, white community claim the Confederacy as part of their heritage. I am definitely biased in this situation. As a member of the black community, I know firsthand the lasting effects of slavery on the black community, I do not need to see statues commemorating it as well. Furthermore, many people who claim the Confederacy as their heritage refuse to acknowledge slavery, how their ancestors and them benefited from it, and how it is still impacting the black community. Germany acknowledged their wrongdoings and gave reparations while America barely acknowledges slavery and other transgressions to the black community in school textbooks. So yes, I am extremely biased.

References

American Battlefield Trust. (2020, February 14). 10 Facts: What Everyone Should Know About the Civil War. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/10-facts-what-everyone-should- know-about-civil-war#:~:text=Fact #1: The Civil War,Union in 1860 and 1861. Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking critically. 3 . Ed. Pearson:Boston, MA. Gancarski, A. (2020, June 09). One down, more to go: Jacksonville to dump Confederate monuments. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://floridapolitics.com/archives/339168-jacksonville-removes-confederate- monument Monroe, N. (2017, October 12). On Confederate monuments, Jacksonville is a city divided. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://www.jacksonville.com/news/metro/2017-10-12/confederate-monuments-jacksonville-city- divided

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SCV Kirby Smith. (1977, January 01). Monument to Women of the Southern Confederacy. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://scv-kirby-smith.org/monument-to-women-of-the-southern-confederacy/

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/156890)Lynne Gallagher (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/156890) Yesterday

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Indiana University Thomas Benton Mural:

I do feel that no one should have to feel emotional anguish when attending school, enjoying free time or being in any sort of public place. This artwork unfortunately does cause that pain and therefore I do not feel that this space should be used. I say used because I also do not think the artwork should be destroyed, however, this mural is not on canvas but painted as a mural. Therefore, it cannot simply be moved. Indiana University has chosen to discontinue the use of this classroom due to the depiction of the Klu Klux Klan in the painting according to the IndyStar (Adams & Hays, 2017). I think this is a step in the right direction but I think more could be done. I would like to see this space used as a tool to teach about the history of the state of Indiana and our country and the need to continue to progress. I do not feel like destroying our history is a solution to racism, instead it is a vehicle towards racism. Many people in this country have had the luxury of ignoring racism because they think now owning slaves or not lynching people makes them not racist. They feel if they pretend it isn’t there then it isn’t. Media, such as this tells the real story. Benton used his gift and voice to make sure we did not forget what happened when we allowed these biases and closed minds to dominant our viewpoints. That being said, I strongly feel that if we ever will get to a place where we view everyone as equal, we would be concerned for everyone’s emotional wellbeing. This mural does cause emotional distress over our country’s long history of oppression and racism. Indiana University states that they are inclusive of everyone and that inclusion should be reflected in their actions. In this case, that would be to provide a safe and comfortable environment for all races and nationalities. I feel that should the area with the mural be used, it should be used by those who choose to use it as a tool for learning more about our nation’s history, viewing it fully prepared for its message.

I do believe that context in which the artwork was created should be considered when making a decision about what to do with the artwork. The intention of the artwork should be considered. For example, photography and journalism is an art form. Many times our news feeds are bombarded with graphic and disturbing images with the intention of capturing our attention to the injustices that are happening in the world. If we were to say this artwork is so offensive it needs to be destroyed, we would have to destroy all forms of art that are considered offensive. This would include those photographs that move us to action. I think context

What do you think should be done with the artwork (e.g., painted over, covered, destroyed, left as is in plain view, etc.)? Why?

Should the context in which the artwork was created (the Great Depression of the 1930s in the case of the Benton and Arnautoff murals) have an impact on the decision of what to do with the artwork?

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is important. We should ask, what was Benton’s intention or the reason he created it? Is this even something we could find information on? Smithsonian Magazine published an article regarding the Indiana University Mural and shed some light on Benton’s own feelings on the history of our country. It reads, “in 1940 he explicitly denounced racism of any sort, declaring: ‘We in this country put no stock in racial genius. We do not believe that because a man comes from one strain rather than another, he starts with superior equipment’” (Adams, 2017). The article further discusses the meaning behind his mural stating that he “painted a reporter, a photographer and a printer into the foreground – an homage to the press of Indiana for breaking the power of the Klan” (Adams, 2017).

I believe that the intention of his artwork and the political climate of his day helps explain the message Benton was trying to convey. He was seeking to express in his own creative way the history of our country and the need for change. He chose a disgusting but very real reality about the world he was familiar with, a world that unfortunately is not really that far off from where we are today.

Facione & Gittens defines problematic vagueness as “having an imprecise meaning or unclear boundaries in a given context of for a given purpose” (2016). I do believe this mural has a vague message. While the depictions are clear, without understanding Benton’s own personal views, some could wonder if he was denouncing racism or glorifying it. I believe that depending on the person viewing the artwork, especially those not alive during the time he painted this, or perhaps those who did not have knowledge of Indiana’s history could perceive his message differently. For example, earlier I mentioned how Benton depicted a reporter, photographer and printer due to the fact that the press helped to weaken the Klan but someone not familiar with this could gather that the media was helped to fuel the Klan or praise them. Art can often be difficult to be free from all vagueness because essentially artwork is meant to be interpreted and enjoyed at the discretion of the viewer.

Adams, D., & Hays, H. V. (2017). IU: Room with mural of KKK rally will no longer be a classroom. IndyStar. Retrieved 2020, from https://www.indystar.com/story/news/2017/09/29/indiana- university-no-longer-use-room-mural-showing-kkk-rally-classroom/717308001 (https://www.indystar.com/story/news/2017/09/29/indiana-university-no-longer-use-room-mural-showing-kkk-rally- classroom/717308001)

Adams, H. (2017). In Defense of Keeping the Indiana University Mural That Depict (But Doesn’t Glorify) the KKK. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2020, from https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/misguided- campaign-remove-the-thomas-hart-benton-mural-180967080/ (https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/misguided-campaign-remove-the-thomas-hart-benton-mural-180967080/)

Facione, P.A., & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Think critically (p.71). Boston: Pearson.

What message do you think the artwork conveys?

Do you think the message is vague?

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/104404)Jesse Alvare (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/104404) Yesterday

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Thomas Benton, painted Social History of Indiana in 1933 for the world fair in Chicago. After the fair it went missing for several years and it was not until 1940 that Indiana University found the paintings and proceeded to put them throughout several buildings in the school. The painting consists of 22 different panels. This massive mural, has a couple of pieces that have been the the center of controversy. The painting depicts the KKK burning a cross. My opinion is that the painting can stay. This painting, if used correctly, could be used as a historical teaching point. Often times when things are controversial or if it does not depict a perfect past then people want to cover it and forget about it. Although the KKK is still active in many areas, this painting can be used as a teaching point, not to go back and not to let KKK be politically active much like Indiana did in the 1920s. In the 1920s the KKK had nearly 250,000 and ruled the political scenery of Indiana (Adams, 2017). I think that the artwork is trying to depict where Indiana is at the time and where they are going. I am not sure that the painting is trying to push and KKK or racist agenda.I dont think that the artwork needs to be taken down or covered up, I do not think that the historical relevance of this piece is enough to keep it up if people had enough of a problem. I also do not think that the artist had and bias while painting this mural. I do think that people viewing it, especially in Americas climate now, will be able to find a multitude of issues with this painting. I can understand why people would maybe not want to see it every time they go to class, because I would not really care to see it and see the burning cross and knowing what the KKK stands for and the racism, anti-semitism, and fear they bring. I also feel like it would be difficult to have these paintings in your class when you are teaching a subject that has no use for paintings like this. The mural could potentially take away from the learning space depending on the student, and it could also be difficult for the teacher as well.

Reference

Adams, H. (2017, November 03). In Defense of Keeping the Indiana University Mural That Depicts (But Doesn’t Glorify) the KKK. Retrieved July 16, 2020, from https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/misguided- campaign-remove-thomas-hart-benton-mural-180967080/

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) 8:28am

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Hello Jesse, thank you for posting to the discussion this week in providing critical reasoning to the mural of your choice.

So you indicated your choice as “my opinion is that the painting can stay.” Let me try to determine a bit of clarification on the use of the word “can”.

Now when you say can stay the question that pose is should it stay or not? Also what does it mean, “if used correctly – that simply begs the question of what does using something correctly really mean?

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Edited by Sonja Sheffield (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891) on Jul 16 at 8:40am

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Then you wrote the artwork is “trying to depict. . .”; Is that to say that it does not do so effectively? Please explain. You also wrote, “I am not sure that the painting is trying to push and KKK…” Can you explain what you mean? And on another note you wrote “… To depict where Indiana is that the time” but I think you meant where Indiana “was” at the time, correct?

My final question for a bit of clarification is this – what you mean by saying “if people had enough of a problem”?

Putting an argument that you hear or read into your own words is an important step in critical reasoning. for the passage below write what you take to be the author’s main point and list any claims the author makes that support this point. Set aside for the moment your own position on the issues raised and try to capture the author’s position as best you can. It is often useful to simplify passage eliminating what is inessential in simplifying cumbersome statements.

a. America cannot allow widespread outsourcing of jobs to other countries because it needs to narrow the gap between the very wealthy and the rest of us. In the last decade, the difference between the wealthiest 20% in the poorer classes has expanded drastically. If the differential becomes too great, American democracy is at risk. We can only hope to reverse this dangerous rate of affairs if we keep jobs in this country that pay wages adequate for workers to support their families and not allow widespread outsourcing.

Reference

Moore, B. N. & Parker, R. (2004). Critical thinking. 7th ed.McGraw Hill: Boston, MA

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/140314)Christine Mercado (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/140314) Yesterday

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Hello Class,

I chose Option 1: California Washington Mural

I think that the “Life of George Washington Mural” should be left where it is in plain view because it is an important part of history that portrays where we came from as a country. Even though history itself can not be altered, there is absolutely no reason for this mural to be taken down. The Mural represents the history of the United States. History hasn’t always had a positive upbringing with wars, violence, and chaos. The mural is a representation of the harm done to the Native Americans. The mural should not be removed because it

1. What do you think should be done with the artwork (e.g., painted over, covered, destroyed, left as is in plain view, etc.)? Why?

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shows where the United States came from and how far the country has gone to fix it’s wrongs. Therefore, history should not be censored, which can prevent today’s people from repeating the same mistakes.

2. What message do you think the artwork conveys?

I think that the mural portrays the beginnings of how the United States started and how the mission was to create a country where everyone can live in unison. It also shows the white settlers and the Founding Fathers creating a truce with the Native Americans to get the resources that they need to bring back to their homeland, as well as Native Americans prepping the lands for crops and other necessities. Overall, I think the message in this mural conveys the good and the bad parts of our history with the Native Americans.

3. Does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message?

Yes, I believe that the mural should be left untouched because the messages conveyed by it are events in history that can not be undone and should not be removed. It can give passerbys a visual on the events that occurred during that time. Thus, it can show how far our country has evolved throughout the course of time.

4. Do you think there is ambiguity in the message?

I believe that there is ambiguity in the message that the artwork portrays because one group of people can say that the mural is representative of a negative past and the other group can say that it is part of the learning process of our history. The message the mural portrays is based on a person’s morals and ethics, and what they choose to believe.

References

Facione, P. A., & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Think critically (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Lam, K. (2019, July 14). A California school board has voted to paint over a mural of George Washington. Educators want to save it. Retrieved July 16, 2020, from https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2019/07/11/san-francisco-mural-academics-george-washington- history/1689543001/

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/139028)Brian Tipton (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/139028) Yesterday

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Indiana University Thomas Hart Benton mural

Thomas Hart Benton painted a mural at Indiana University in 1933. The portrait is supposed to be showing Indiana exposing the corruption and prejudice of the Ku Klux Klan in the state. The portrait has many factors playing into its message. The KKK is seen in the background with burning cross at what appears to be a rally. Coming into the forefront you see a circus and an African American child in a hospital bed with a caucasian nurse and surrounded by caucasian men.

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What do you think should be done with the artwork (e.g., painted over, covered, destroyed, left as is in plain view, etc.)? Why? I personally feel the painting needs to come down. While it depicts the state exposing the KKK, one could see it differently as there is one African American in the portrait and is a young child. I personally feel if you want to show advancement then one should incorporate more African Americans. Nearly 1,600 signatories are asking the school to take down or cover the offending panel from A Social History of Indiana (http://www.iuauditorium.com/about-us/thomas-hart-benton-murals) (1933), also known as the Indiana murals.(Cascone, 2017)

2). What message do you think the artwork conveys I truly do feel the portrait is conveying the exposure of the KKK’s corruption and prejudice in Indiana.

3). Does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message? Yes. I do believe that the portrait should be saved based on the fact the artist took a big risk painting the issue in a time of turmoil and prejudice. The artwork and the message both are very important. I feel the painting should be displayed in a museum so it can help educate society.

4). Do you think the message is vague? I can see that the painting could be considered vague, but I believe that is based on personal interpretation.There is nothing inherently wrong with vagueness or ambiguity unless they introduce problems in a given real-life context or for a given purpose.(Faccione, pg. 74)

Cascone, S. (2017). Students Rally to Remove a Thomas Hart Benton Mural Depicting the KKK at Indiana University. Retrieved from https://news.artnet.com/art-world/thomas-hart-benton-mural-indiana-1133765 (https://news.artnet.com/art-world/thomas-hart-benton-mural-indiana-1133765)

Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking critically. 3 . Ed. Pearson:Boston, MA.rd

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/147419)Elijah Wiggin (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/147419) Yesterday

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I chose option 2

Indiana University Thomas Hart Benton Mural.

“In the mural, the Klansmen are seen alongside a reporter, photographer, and printer- a reference to the Pulitizer Prize-winning 1928 story that uncovered the KKK’s ties to the government and broke their political influence over the state.” (Cascone, 2017)

-What do you think should be done with the artwork? Why?

I think that the mural should be kept as is. It is telling history in many different ways. There are many people that want the mural down or painted over because they do not agree with what it is painted. They now no

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longer hold classes in that room. I do not think that it should be removed.

-Does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message?

I think that it is historic. The message of the mural can be portrayed wrong but it shows the history of what was going on during that time. Regardless of the message it has it has historic value.

-Should the context in which people now view the artwork have an impact on the decision of what to do with it?

I think that the context of how it is viewed should not have an impact on it. We cannot change the history back then and removing the painting or changing it will not change history. If people wanted to change the artwork now it should have more of a purpose than disagreeing what happened in our history and how it was put on a painting.

-Do you think there is ambiguity in the message?

I think that there can be two views on this artwork. There are people who disagree with it and think that it supports evil in our state. Then the other side supports it knowing that it is apart of our history whether they agree or disagree with the history.

Reference

Cascone, Sarah. (October 2017) Students Rally to Remove a Thomas Hart Benton Mural Depicting the KKK at Indiana University. Retrieved July 15, 2020. https://news.artnet.com/art-world/thomas-hart-benton- mural-indiana-1133765 (https://news.artnet.com/art-world/thomas-hart-benton-mural-indiana-1133765)

Adams, Dwight and Hays, Holly. (2019 September).Room with mural of KKK rally will no longer be a classroom. Retrieved July 15, 2020. https://www.indystar.com/story/news/2017/09/29/indiana-university- no-longer-use-room-mural-showing-kkk-rally-classroom/717308001/ (https://www.indystar.com/story/news/2017/09/29/indiana-university-no-longer-use-room-mural-showing-kkk-rally- classroom/717308001/)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/157292)Marija Mozuraityte (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/157292) Yesterday

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Hello Class,

Option 1: California Washington mural

The California Washington mural located in Washington High School was painted in 1936 by depression-era artist Victor Arnautoff. It has since received criticism as it depicts our countries dark history of slaves and the mistreatment of Native Americans. The murals represent George Washington pointing to a deceased Native

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American and African Americans working in the fields of Mount Vernon. According to The New York Times, “One side sees an immersive history lesson; the other, which includes many African-Americans and Native Americans, sees a hostile environment.”

Q1: What message do you think the artwork conveys?

Q2: What do you think should be done with the artwork?

Q3: Should the context of which the artwork was created have an impact of the decision of what to do with the artwork?

Q4: Does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message?

References:

Pogash, Carol. “These High School Murals Depict an Ugly History. Should They Go?” The New York Times, The New York Times, 11 Apr. 2019, www.nytimes.com/2019/04/11/arts/design/george-washington-murals- ugly-history-debated.html.

I believe the purpose of the artwork is to convey the message simply of our American history. This reminds me of a particular quote by George Santayana, “Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it” I believe this quote resonates with this topic as I feel it is important to acknowledge our past history and learn from it rather than pretend it never happened. This mural depicts our countries history that shaped our nation to how it operates today. If artists, reporters, and writers decided to never share and create these artifacts then we would never know our countries history and that would have negative effects.

In my opinion, I believe it is best to leave the artwork untouched. The mural is not a depiction of our countries state of mind today but rather a reminder of our past. Instead of it being a negative depiction it should be a symbol of growth and we should continue to become greater than our past actions.

Absolutely it should because the mural was painted to represent a piece of history and awareness of that and that is how it shall remain, simply a symbol of awareness. It would be arrogant to cover up the mural as that to me would depict that America is “erasing” our history and pretending certain events didn’t happen. If that was the case, then we should also revisit how our country was truly founded. Food for thought. Another example, veterans who fought in our WW1, WWII, celebrate veteran’s day, Memorial Day, and the fourth of July. Even though they experienced unimaginable events they still admire our country, and some have said they would fight for it all over again if they had to. If the world wars were as brutal as they were then should we simply not give recognition to the veterans and not celebrate the fourth of July because of that? My personal answer is no, we should not disregard these holidays just because our history was dark and ugly.

The historic value should require the mural to remain an ancient artifact and remain as it is, untouched to preserve our history.

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) 9:14am

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Hello Marija, thank you for posting to the discussion this week in providing critical reasoning to the mural of your choice.

I like the quote that you provided by George Santayana and it makes a lot of sense. To that particular point, would you agree that history has been repeated since that time? You thought this through quite thoroughly.

Let’s look at the anatomy of arguments by identifying premises and conclusions

When someone gives reasons to support a point of view, that person is usually offering an argument. You encourage arguments in your reading and in your conversations with others, and you commonly offer arguments to support your own beliefs. When you are presented with an argument, you can take the opportunity to decide whether the reasons given are good enough to warrant incorporating the point of view that is being advanced into your own set of beliefs. To make this decision, you need to clearly understand the argument and then evaluated.

Since an argument gives reasons (one or more) in support of a point of view, both of the following examples which surely count as arguments. In each of them, at least one reason is given to support a point of view.

Put the following exercises into standard form, indicating premise(s) and conclusion.

1. Capital punishment should be abolished. This is so because a nonwhite murderer whose victim is white is much more likely to be executed than a white murderer whose victim is either white or nonwhite. If that is the case, then either this kind of discrimination should be eliminated, or the death penalty should be abolished. Unfortunately, this kind of discrimination cannot be eliminated.

2. Since smoking is addictive, we can conclude the production of cigarettes should be more tightly restricted. This is because if smoking is addictive, then cigarettes companies a trafficking in addictive substances; and if cigarette companies a trafficking in addictive substances, production of cigarettes should be more tightly restricted.

Moore, B. N. & Parker, R. (2004). Critical thinking. 7th ed. McGraw Hill: Boston, MA

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/93752)Ryan Jordan (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/93752) 12:11am

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Hello Professor and Class,

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Option 3: Conduct research on a mural or statue or monument in your town that is the subject of controversy.

This weeks i will be given and argument and reason as to why i feel my chosen historical monument should be torn down or kept in plain sight. ” Making arguments and giving reasons to communicate the basis of our arguments is universal to humans”(Facione & Gittens, 2016). The controversial piece that i have chosen is a monument located in my hometown Chicago, IL . This monument is the Confederate Mounds in Oak Woods Cemetery. “Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood stands a 30-foot granite monument dedicated to the thousands of Confederate soldiers who died as prisoners of war at Camp Douglas “( nps.gov). While some honor the men who died fighting.. Others believe, “the Confederate Mound represents the country’s painful history of racism” (Chicago Tribune, 2020).

1. What do you think should be done with the artwork (e.g., painted over, covered, destroyed, left as is in plain view, etc.)? Why?

I think this monument needs to be torn down. There are other ways to honor men who have fought and died. Not attach them to slavery by also acknowledging and honoring the man that owned them and forced them to fight.

2. Does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message?

No, The historic value does not require that it be saved. The historic value of why they men had to fight, is what i don’t agree with. I don’t agree with enslaving people and forcing them to fight,

3.Do you think the message of the artwork is sufficiently important that the message alone requires that it be saved?

No, the monument should not be saved based on the message. The message alone is not important. I feel the message is based on the confederates that the slaves fought with and the battle they were in . I equate confederates with encouraging and agreeing with slavery.

Chicago Tribune , (2020). Confederate group activist hold competing Ceremonies at Oak Wood cemetery. Retrieved From:https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-met-ida-b-wells-confederate-mound- 20180422-story.html (https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-met-ida-b-wells-confederate-mound-20180422- story.html)

National Park Service .gov, (n.d.)Confederate Mound Oak Wood Cemetery. Retrieved From : https://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/national_cemeteries/Illinois/Confederate_Mound_Oak_Woods_Cemeter y.html (https://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/national_cemeteries/Illinois/Confederate_Mound_Oak_Woods_Cemetery.html)

Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking critically. 3 . Ed. Pearson:Boston, MA.

– Ryan

rd

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) !

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9:03am

” Reply &

Hello Ryan, thank you for posting to the discussion this week in providing critical reasoning to the mural of your choice.

Your point is very well taken by providing an alternative that there are other ways to honor men who have fought and died.

Is the message vague to you regarding your selection?

Let’s look at the anatomy of arguments by identifying premises and conclusions

When someone gives reasons to support a point of view, that person is usually offering an argument. You encourage arguments in your reading and in your conversations with others, and you commonly offer arguments to support your own beliefs. When you are presented with an argument, you can take the opportunity to decide whether the reasons given are good enough to warrant incorporating the point of view that is being advanced into your own set of beliefs. To make this decision, you need to clearly understand the argument and then evaluated.

Since an argument gives reasons (one or more) in support of a point of view, both of the following examples which surely count as arguments. In each of them, at least one reason is given to support a point of view.

Put the following exercises into standard form, indicating premise(s) and conclusion.

1. If private enterprise does better than government and running businesses, then it will do better at running schools. Private enterprise does better at running businesses. We can conclude that private enterprise will do better at running schools.

2. If privatizing schools would leave poorer, more difficult to educate students at a disadvantage, then privatizing schools will only worsen the problems of inner cities. It follows the privatizing schools will worsen the problems of inner cities since privatizing would leave poorer, more difficult to educate students at a disadvantage.

Moore, B. N. & Parker, R. (2004). Critical thinking. 7th ed. McGraw Hill: Boston, MA

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/72553)Navjeet Mattu (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/72553) 1:36am

!

Hello Everyone,

Option 1: The Life of Washington is a painting by Victor Arnautoff

What do you think should be done with the artwork (e.g., painted over, covered, destroyed, left as is in

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” Reply &

Reference:

Pogash, C. (2019, April 11). These High School Murals Depict an Ugly History. Should They Go? Retrieved July 16, 2020, from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/11/arts/design/george-washington-murals-ugly-history- debated.html

plain view, etc.)? Why?

The artwork presented in George Washington High School should not be destroyed. Destroying a piece of history is equivalent to forgetting the terrorizing history of the minority groups like the Native Americans and African Americans. Some may argue that many pieces of history still remain in our world and removing one wouldn’t change history. However, removing this piece of art removes the controversy itself. If it is not left to us to talk about the horrific events of our past, then who will? It is not every day we walk around with the idea that slavery was so terrifying and how African Americans were being treated with brutality. I believe as some high school students walk past this artwork, they might feel uncomfortable but question the true meaning of this painting, some might feel influenced to be the change that is needed in society.

What message do you think the artwork conveys?

Do you think the message is vague?

I believe the artwork conveys a powerful message of who George Washington really was. Arnautoff shows George Washington in the start of his journey as a commander where people idolized him. Then, it ends with the image of the White House with slaves outside of it, showing the terrible things the President was an advocate for. In history, George Washington is glorified to be a hero, but the artwork also conveys the ugly truth that is not spoken of.

In my opinion, the message is vague. The image portrays George Washington several times in different events in history. It is left to the people to interpret what is going on in these events and what George Washington’s motives were. There is no specific written statement of what this art means without having prior knowledge. The title of the artwork is very neutral and does not show bias.

Does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message?

Yes, I believe the artwork should be saved because of the historic value. The message that is portrayed in this artwork is something that can encourage others to make a change, so why should one erase it. Artwork usually isn’t made to make one feel comfortable feelings only, artwork can be created to spark emotion and conversation within our society. It is unfortunate the artwork is in a High School building, where some might not be able to handle this sort of controversy.

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