Critical Reasoning Week 3

Please see the attachment

This is a graded discussion: 25 points possible due Jul 27 at 1:59am

Week 3 Discussion: Evaluating Sources 12 12

Required Resources Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Introduction “Everyone is entitled to their own opinions – but not their own facts.” (Daniel Patrick Moynihan, cited in Vanity Fair, 2010, para. 2)

We form opinions – and make our judgments – based on facts we observe and values we hold. Our judgments are also influenced by the opinions of others. In the section “An Expert on Hate in America” in Chapter 6, one of the authors, Dr. Peter Facione, renders an opinion on a non-profit civil rights organization: Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC). Dr. Facione is a leading advocate and one of the most influential voices in the field of critical thinking.

His endorsement of the civil rights organization is unqualified. It is also transparent: Dr. Facione reveals that he is a financial supporter of the organization and has arranged speaking engagements for its founder. This is Dr. Facione’s invitation to you, the reader:

Knowing where you can learn more about the SPLC for yourself, and knowing about Dr. Facione’s endorsement and support of the Center’s work, evaluate this claim made by Dr. Facione: “The SPLC is an expert on hate in America” (p. 124).

The endorsement of the SPLC is contained in the most current edition of the text, whose copyright date is 2016. Since that time Morris Dees, co-founder and former chief trial counsel, has been fired (Hassan, Zraick & Blinder, 2019). Previously, there has been controversy about groups and individuals that are listed by the SPLC as “hate groups” (Graham, 2016; Price, 2018). The organization, which has nearly a half-billion dollars in assets, has also been criticized for how it spends these funds (Robinson, 2019).

Self-Assessment Question

Textbook: Chapter 6, 7 Lesson Minimum of 1 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)

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Before you submit your initial post, make sure to read the assigned chapter. Then, ask yourself the following: Did the article in Chapter 6 of the text seem credible and reliable? Why? Be very specific:

Initial Post Instructions For the initial post, address the following:

Only after you have done some responsible research should you begin to respond to the discussion prompt. The discussion is not about the SPLC; it is not about Dr. Facione. It is about what you have learned about forming opinions.

Your post must answer this question:

Your post must also discuss at least two (2) of the following questions:

Follow-Up Post Instructions Respond to at least two peers or one peer and the instructor. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Writing Requirements

Was it because it is in a textbook? Because it was written by a learned and respected person? Because of content in the article? Because of your previous knowledge of the SPLC?

Conduct additional research on the SPLC. Did your opinion alter in any way? Why?

How do you define the term “expert”?

How important are facts in the process of forming an opinion? Explain what you believe to be the purpose or function of facts in making a judgment. How did you respond to the self-assessment question? Since doing further research, have you re-thought the way in which you assess credibility and reliability? What is the importance of factoring the recency of a reference or opinion (i.e., how old is it?) into an assessment of credibility and reliability? How would you evaluate Dr. Facione’s claim “The SPLC is an expert on hate in America” (p. 124). Does the SPLC fit your definition of “expert”? Be specific in your answer.

Minimum of 3 posts (1 initial & 2 follow-up) Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source)

Top

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Search entries or author

Grading This activity will be graded using the Discussion Grading Rubric. Please review the following link:

Course Outcomes (CO): 4, 5, 6

Due Date for Initial Post: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Wednesday Due Date for Follow-Up Posts: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Sunday

References

Facione, P. A., & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Think critically (3rd ed.). Pearson.

Graham, D.A., (2016, October) How did Maajid Nawaz end up on a list of ‘anti- Muslim extremists’? https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2016/10/maajid-nawaz- splc-anti-muslim-extremist/505685/

Hassan, A., Zraick, K., & Blinder, A (2019, March 24) Morris Dees, a co-founder of the Southern Poverty Law Center, is ousted. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/14/us/morris-dees-southern-poverty- law-center-fired.html

Price, G. (2018, June 18) Southern Poverty Law Center settles lawsuit after falsely labeling ‘extremist’ organization. Newsweek. https://www.newsweek.com/splc-nawaz-million-apologizes-981879

Robinson, N. J. (2019, March) The Southern Poverty Law Center is everything that’s wrong with liberalism. Current Affairs. https://www.currentaffairs.org/2019/03/the-southern-poverty-law-center-is- everything-thats-wrong-with-liberalism

Vanity Fair. (2010, October 10). An American original. https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2010/11/moynihan-letters-201011

APA format for in-text citations and list of references

Link (webpage): Discussion Guidelines

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Jun 22, 2020

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Greetings Students,

You are only required to post an initial answer post and ONE follow-up post in each required discussion, each week.

Please make your TWO posts each week between Monday and Sunday. Your posts must occur on different days with the first post occurring by Wednesday. If there are extenuating circumstances, please communicate with your professor.

Since so many of our beliefs are based on what other people tell us, in writing, or TV or by word-of-mouth, the critical thinker needs to know how to decide who to believe and in what circumstances. The criteria which apply will depend on the case, but relevant considerations will often include:

The sources reputation for reliability (contrast the BBC and the Sun newspaper).

Whether the source has a vested interest (e.g., someone accused of war crimes who denies any responsibility)

Whether there is corroboration of the claim from independent sources (as when it was claimed that cold fusion has been produced)

Whether the source has the relevant expertise/training (as when a police officer gives evidence in court)

The nature of the claim itself (as when someone claims to have witnessed a miracle)

Whether the source can provide credible reasons for the claim they make (as when someone claims to have encountered ‘aliens’ from another planet).

Check this out.

A group of scientists has looked at a number of studies of the link between passive smoking and lung cancer. The scientists have said that these studies do not demonstrate that there is a significant risk of lung cancer for non-smokers who are exposed to environmental

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Edited by Sonja Sheffield (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891) on Jun 22 at 12:38pm

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tobacco smoke at work or in the home, either form a smoking parent or spouse. But this analysis was commissioned by the tobacco industry. So findings of the analysis are likely to be incorrect.

Reference

Fisher, A. (2001). Critical thinking: An introduction. Cambridge University Press: UK. 11

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Caitlyn Pienkowski (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/102153) Monday

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Hello!

According to the SPCL website, the SPCL is dedicated to fighting hate and bigotry and to seek justice for the most vulnerable members of our society. My opinion did not alter in anyway. I think the website is a source for people to educate themselves on what is going on the America and is a way to stop the hate.

I would define the term “expert” as someone having authoritative knowledge in a particular skill.

– I think in order to even form an opinion you have to know your facts. You should not voice an opinion if you cannot back yourself up without support. That is what I believe to be the purpose of facts in making a judgement.

“We solve problems by following the reasons and the evidence with courage wherever they lead, by asking the tough questions, by being inquisitive, by being open- minded and tolerant about a wide range of ideas and possible explanations, by being persistent and systematic in our inquiry, and by not fearing what this process will turn up as possible answers” (Wittens,

How important are facts in the process of forming an opinion? Explain what you believe to be the purpose or function of facts in making a judgment.

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2015).

– I believe what is in the textbook is very credible and reliable. I always look for peer reviewed articles when using them for an assignment because it gives enough credibility for support. I would not use an article that is outdated more than 5 years. You always want to stay up to date with information within the last 3-5 years.

Reference

https://www.splcenter.org/what-we-do (https://www.splcenter.org/what-we-do)

Gittens, P.F.C. A. (2015). THINK Critically. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780133914351/

How did you respond to the self-assessment question? Since doing further research, have you re-thought the way in which you assess credibility and reliability? What is the importance of factoring the recency of a reference or opinion (i.e., how old is it?) into an assessment of credibility and reliability?

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Monday

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Hello Caitlyn, thank you for being the first to respond to this week’s discussion.

You wrote, “. . . it important to know your facts.” Whose facts are those and it is really our own facts that we should know and cling to? The sentence is a bit vague and I’m only trying to get clarification of what you really mean.

According to a recent Time/CNN poll:

These poll results, if they reflect reality, say something about some of the claims Americans find credible. One thing that makes these high percentages interesting is that evidence of the effectiveness of prayer in healing is so difficult to document, is it

Eighty-two percent of Americans believe in the healing power of personal prayer. Seventy-three percent believe that praying for someone else can help cure that person’s illness. Seventy-seven percent believe that God sometimes intervenes to cure people who have a serious illness.

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not?

What are your thoughts about “eyewitness” accounts? Look at this example:

Fairfax, Virginia, police officer signals cars after a man was shot to death October 11, 2002, at a gas station near Fredericksburg, Virginia. Police were looking for a white van.

When the series of sniper shootings occurred in Washington, DC, during the fall 2002, there were eyewitness reports that the perpetrators were two white men traveling in a white enclosed truck. In fact, two men who fit that description were detained and investigated by authorities. But when those doing the shootings were caught, they turned out to be two black men in a blue Chevrolet Caprice.

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Monica Hernandez (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/118358) Yesterday

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Hello Professor and class,

How do you define the term expert?

An expert is a distinguished credible source with extensive knowledge and experience in a given subject area of study. Someone who is acknowledged by the professional peers at the most reliable source of information in this field or domain.

How important are facts in the process of forming in

Facts are extremely important in the process of forming an opinion. The purpose and function of fast is that they serve as verify proof or confirmations of details for the claim or argument. Facts and details allow us to see the truth and relevancy behind a claim or arguments. My evaluation of Dr. Facione claim the SPLC is an expert on hate in America was skeptical. I immediately thought the further research is going to be necessary prior to forming an opinion on whether or not the SPLC I was truly an expert on hate in America. This was because the end of the article mentioned Faciones investment and financial ties of the organization(Faciones, 2016). Furthering facts and information on SPLC, it seems that the

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organization is a public and recognized credible source with a background of human rights. It is also widely supported to of a large network by the government. The article in the Washington post mentions that the hate list created by the SPLC was considered nonpartisan enough to be recognized by the government agencies, law enforcement, cooperations and journalists( Montgomery 2018).

References:

Facione, P.A.,& GIttens, C.A. (2016). Think critically (3rd Ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson. Montgomery, D. (2018, November 8). The Southern Poverty Law Center and the delicate task of definingnhate in 2018. Retrieved from March 16, 2020 from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/magazine/work/2018/11/08/feature/is-the-southern- poverty-law-center-judging-hate-fairly/

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Wei Wen Chiang (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/99157) Yesterday

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Before I conduct additional research on SPLC, the article in chapter 6 seems credible and reliable to me because it is in the textbook and also because all the data it is showing. I did not have any knowledge of SPLC that I did not know what it stands for. I also believe that there are multiple people who wrote the textbook, instead of just Dr. Facione; therefore, the article has to be credible if it went through different readings.

After further researches, my opinion altered a little. The definition of hate crime nowadays definitely changed comparing to 1971 when Morris Dees founded SPLC. I believe when SPLC was first founded from a good place, but I feel like fame makes things change. According to Hassan, Zraick and Blinder, in the recent years, the center has come under scrutiny for its classification of “hate groups,” and whether the organization has abused that label in pursuit of a political agenda or increased donation. (Hassan, Zraick & Blinder, 2019).

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I define expert as someone who has a lot of experience in the field. The textbook defines expert as someone who is both experienced and learned in a given subject matter area or field of professional practice (Facion, 2016).

How important are facts in the process of forming an opinion? Facts are important in the process of forming an opinion. Facts can increase my credibility when I am trying to form an opinion. It makes my opinion more trustworthy.

How would you evaluate Dr. Facione’s claim? I think Dr. Facione’s claim is biased. I feel like if Dr. Facione is a financial supporter of SPLC, he should not give his opinion any SPLC topics. Although SPLC has a lot of experience with hate crimes and there are lawyers working with SPLC, SPLC does not fit my definition of expert. I believe an expert should be unbiased instead of favoring some ideas.

Reference:

Facione, P. A., & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Think critically (3rd ed.). Pearson.

Hassan, A., Zraick, K., & Blinder, A. (2019, March 14). Morris Dees, a Co-Founder of the Southern Poverty Law Center, Is Ousted. Retrieved July 21, 2020, from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/14/us/morris-dees-southern-poverty-law-center- fired.html (https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/14/us/morris-dees-southern-poverty-law-center- fired.html)

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Scott O’Malley (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/84538) 5:01am

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Professor & Class,

Before reading the “An Expert on Hate in America”, I didn’t know what SPLC was. I believe it is a credible and reliable text because it is in our book. The text was able to provide stats and provide a website in which the reader is able to look up more information.

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After doing my own research on the SPLC, my opinion didn’t change because I felt they were able to provide facts. It is also a non-profit website because it is a .org compared to being a .com. the website was organized and I was able to learn more about the hate groups such as location and leaders.

I define an “expert” as someone who has knowledge of a subject through studies and experiences. They are able to provide facts for their beliefs. An expert is able to provide consistent reliable facts.

Facts are important in the process of forming an opinion because without a basic knowledge or credible source, it may be difficult for others to understand you. Without facts, people won’t take your opinion seriously.

I would say that Dr. Facione’s claim “ The SPLC” is an expert on hate in America because the SPLC is able to provide factual information on the subject. Not only did they provide facts but also were able to locate the groups all over the U.S., name a couple of leaders of these hate groups, and it is backed up by the government. I do believe the SPLC consist of experts because they provide years of facts through the past twenty years.

Gittens, P.F.C. A. (2015). THINK Critically. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780133914351/ (https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780133914351/)

https://www.splcenter.org/what-we-do (https://www.splcenter.org/what-we-do)

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Elijah Wiggin (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/147419) 6:02am

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After reading the article in the book and then reading on SPLC’s website, my opinion did not change. The SPLC is an organization that fights to end hate groups of a wide variety. Their

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website is very informative and gives a lot of information on what the organization does.

My definition of expert is, someone being well knowledgeable and familiar about a certain skill or topic.

-How important are facts in the process of forming an opinion? Explain what you believe to be the purpose or function of facts in making a judgment.

I think that facts are super important when forming an opinion. To make an honest opinion you need the truth and the right facts on the situation. The function of the facts to make a judgement or opinion is that accurate facts help with a better opinion. If the facts are not true, vague, or confusing it makes it more difficult to form a sound opinion. If the facts are clear, in depth, and have data backing them up then it is easier to form an opinion on the topic.

-How would you evaluate Dr. Facione’s claim “The SPLC is an expert on hate in America” (p. 124). Does the SPLC fit your definition of “expert”? Be specific in your answer.

After looking through the website and seeing what they had to say, I think that they could be considered experts in that area. With the data and the in depth topics they talk about I think that they are well knowledgeable about the situations going on in the world.

Facione, P.A.,& GIttens, C.A. (2016). Think critically (3rd Ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson.

20, J. (2020, July 20). Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved July 22, 2020, from https://www.splcenter.org/

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Brittany Varnes (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/129972) 9:28am

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Hi Professor and Class,

According to Thiessen (2018), the SPLC organization has been using its resources and influence to tarnish people. In his report, Thiessen notes an episode in which the organization listed Maajid Nawaz as an extremist (2018). The Muslim cleric, who had since renounced his association with Islamic radicals, filed a lawsuit accusing the SPLC of defamation. Other

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victims whose names have been slurred include Ben Carson, who was listed as a white supremacist and a neo-Nazi. According to Thiessen (2018), the SPLC organization continues to deface innocent people by listing them as extremists.

Thiessen’s report about SPLC changed what I had previously thought; I had thought it as a credible organization. Given what Dr. Facione writes about SPLC and what I read on Thiessen’s report, our views tend to differ. The former commends the organization as an “Expert on hate in America” for exposing extremist groups and their members. Dr. Facione even thanks SPLC for returning normalcy in schools where incidences of hatred had been rampant. While his article may be seen as a credible source, its reliability is questionable owing to Thiessen’s findings; the latter’s report is more recent than Dr. Facione ‘s.

Dr. Facione is a pro-SPLC and maintains a close relationship with the organization’s co- founder. I think his assertion about the organization being an “expert on hate in America” is an overstatement owing to the recent misfortunes that have befallen the SPLC. The organization’s co-founder, Mr. Dee, and friend of Dr. Facione’s was sacked after reports emerged that he had engaged in office misconduct (Wamsley, 2019). Add this to the pending lawsuits, I disagree with Dr. Facione’s claim. The organization does not, therefore, fit my definition of “expert.” According to Facione and Gittens (2016), an expert exhibits profound knowledge of their profession. The SPLC does not attach proof when they label people as extremists, which raises questions about their expertise.

References

Facione, P. A., & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Think critically (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Thiessen, M. A. (2018, June 22). The Southern Poverty Law Center has lost all credibility. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/the-southern-poverty-law-center- has-lost-all-credibility/2018/06/21/22ab7d60-756d-11e8-9780-b1dd6a09b549_story.html

Wamsley, L. (2019, March 14). Southern Poverty Law Center Fires Morris Dees, Its Co- Founder. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2019/03/14/703526235/southern-poverty-law- center-fires-morris-dees-its-co-founder

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Dijana Rahmanovic (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/64315) 10:06am

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I conducted research on the Southern Poverty Law Center through their website. My opinion of them did not change. I define the term “expert” as someone who has comprehensive knowledge on a topic, often through professional training on it. Facts are important to the process of forming an opinion. Facts are what we form our opinions on topics around. For instance, we know, through seeing it with our own eyes, that police brutality exists, therefore we will form our opinion for or against police brutality based on the fact of the matter.

Dr. Facione’s claim is “The SPLC is an expert on hate in America” (p. 124). I believe the SPLC fits my definition of “expert”. The founder of the organization, Morris Dees, is a civil rights lawyer who has spent his career focusing on hate crimes against minorities. The organization is also lead by a team of civil rights lawyers and has a team full of other members who play an important role. I believe that the organization, which was founded in 1971, has been dedicated to its cause, and it is undeniable the its leading team, with the credentials, it has, has steered the organization toward many victories. They are experts in the field of hate crimes and civil rights because of the education and experience they have on the topic.

References

Facione, P.A.,& GIttens, C.A. (2016). Think critically (3rd Ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson.

20, J. (2020, July 20). Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved July 22, 2020, from https://www.splcenter.org/

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Ashley White

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/148682) 11:19am

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Hi Professor and Class!

Did the article in Chapter 6 of the text seem credible and reliable? Why?

The article in Chapter 6 does seem credible to me. It appears credible to me because of the fact its in a book, and written by someone respected. It also is credible because of the statistical facts and dates that are in the article as well. When an article is backed up with facts it appears to be from a credible source.

Did your opinion alter in any way? Why?

Yes, after reaching my opinion is different. It seems like the SPLC did a good job at listing hate groups at first and then it got out of hand. Now it seems they are listing people before they even know anything about them. But when it declares Maajid Nawaz, the Family Research Council, Ben Carson and Charles Murray as moral equivalents of the Klan, it loses all integrity and credibility(Theissen, 2018). Its not fair that they starting putting people on their list before they did their research.

How do you define the term “expert”? Someone who has a lot of knowledge and experience in a specific skill.

How important are facts in the process of forming an opinion? Explain what you believe to be the purpose or function of facts in making a judgment. Facts are important when forming an opinion because they can persuade the reader to agree with them. The facts in this article made me think the SPLC was doing a good job to call out these hate groups, but now after further research I don’t think these facts are credible.

How would you evaluate Dr. Facione’s claim “The SPLC is an expert on hate in America” (p. 124). Does the SPLC fit your definition of “expert”? Be specific in your answer. I don’t think Dr. Facione’s claim is credible. It makes me wonder about his judgement too. The SPLC are not experts if they are accusing the wrong people to be listed on their hate group list. I think they do have knowledge of the hate groups because they have been doing this for years, but they also don’t really show any proof of why they label certain people in the hate group.

References:

Thiessen, M. (2018, June 22). Opinion | The Southern Poverty Law Center has lost all credibility. Retrieved July 22, 2020, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/the- southern-poverty-law-center-has-lost-all-credibility/2018/06/21/22ab7d60-756d-11e8-9780-

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b1dd6a09b549_story.html

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) 3:41pm

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Hello Ashley, thanks for your thoughts for this week as we look at credibility.

So let me ask you this you indicated that the article in chapter 6 seems credible because it’s written in a book as well as written by someone respected. The two questions that I would ask based on that statement are is everything written in a book credible and reliable; how do you know the author is respected? And then do you know for sure that the statistical facts and dates in the article are credible and reliable; how do you know for sure?

I’m not sure what you mean by when you wrote, “yes, after reaching my opinion is different.” Can you explain what you mean by that please.

Now let me ask some qualifying and clarification questions. You said the SPLC did a good job at first and then it got out of hand. What do you mean specifically by getting out of hand? And then be careful when you read terms such as, “it seems”, because that will cause someone that you either speaking to will ask what you say it seems like? You understand where I’m going here? Because remember we’re talking about credibility and reliability in checking sources.

Did you consider checking any outside facts regarding the SPLC before you form your opinion? I’m just curious.

How does social media factor into how you form your opinions?

Let’s look at assessing the credibility of sources. The guiding principle in evaluating claims requires that they come from credible sources. What about the credibility of sources? A person may lack credibility in various ways; what do you see as some of those ways an individual may be lacking in credibility?

I look forward to your response.

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Loc Nguyen (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/131729) 4:02pm

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Hello Professor and class,

Reference

Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking critically. 3 . Ed. Pearson:Boston, MA.

Teaching Tolerance. (n.d.). Retrieved July 22, 2020, from https://www.splcenter.org/teaching- tolerance

After reading the article, “An Expert on Hate in America” I thought that their credibility is legitimate since it was published in a textbook, but I am still a little skeptical. After I did my research on SPLC, I am convinced that they are the group they claim to be because they have an anti-biased program. The anti-bias approach encourages children and young people to challenge prejudice and learn how to be agents of change in their own lives (SPLC). To me the term “expert” means someone who has years of experience and knowledge in their field. Facts are very important in the process of forming opinion. Facts are things that already proven and cannot be altered, just like law of physics. Opinions are formed and influenced base on known facts; therefore, judgement is made when all facts are known. I would evaluate Dr. Facion’s claim “The SPLC is an expert on hate in America” is an act of interest. Experts, being humans, have interests. (Faciones, 2016, p. 121). Dr. Faciones is a financial supporter of the SPLC for decades. The SPLC does fit my definition of “expert” because they have years of experience and knowledge when it comes to fight hate and bigotry in the country.

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