Critical Reasoning Week 6 Discussion 2

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This is a graded discussion: 25 points possible due Aug 17 at 1:59am

Week 6 Discussion 2: Empirical Reasoning 46 46

Required Resources Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Introduction As the text points out, causal reasoning is used in clinical studies. As a professional in the health field, you will undoubtedly be referring to cause/effect studies for the rest of your professional life. In this discussion, you are asked to expand and deepen your understanding of clinical studies.

In 1999, a study on the causes of myopia appeared in the prestigious journal Nature (Quinn). The study received wide-spread publicity in leading newspapers, such as the New York Times, and on television outlets, such as CBS and CNN. Within a year, another article in Nature followed up the 1999 study (Zadnik et al., 2000). The studies had dramatically different findings.

Initial Post Instructions Using what you have learned from the text, as well as any other sources you may find useful (including the website in the Required Resources), analyze and evaluate the methodology of both studies and how methodology affected the differences in how the studies were reported.

Reportage of both studies can be found with an Internet search using all of the following terms: <Philadelphia myopia night lights>.

Follow-Up Post Instructions Respond to at least two peers or one peer and the instructor. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Textbook: Chapter 14 Lesson 1, 2 Link (library article): Myopia and Ambient Lighting at Night (https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds-live&scope=site) Link (library article): Myopia and Ambient Night-Time Lighting (https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site) Link (website): What Are Clinical Trials and Studies? (https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/what-are- clinical-trials-and-studies) Minimum of 1 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook and noted readings)

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Writing Requirements

Grading This activity will be graded using the Discussion Grading Rubric. Please review the following link:

Course Outcomes (CO): 3, 4, 5

Due Date for Initial Post: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Wednesday Due Date for Follow-Up Posts: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Sunday

References

National Intitute on Aging. (n.d.). What are clinical trials and studies? https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/what-are-clinical-trials-and-studies

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds-live&scope=site

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143-144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site

Minimum of 3 posts (1 initial & 2 follow-up) Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source) APA format for in-text citations and list of references

Link (webpage): Discussion Guidelines

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Jun 22, 2020

Edited by Sonja Sheffield (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891) on Jun 22 at 12:40pm

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Greetings Students,

You are only required to post an initial answer post and ONE follow-up post in each required discussion, each week.

Please make your TWO posts each week between Monday and Sunday. Your posts must occur on different days with the first post occurring by Wednesday. If there are extenuating circumstances, please communicate with your professor.

For the second half of this week, this discussion is an object lesson in the necessity to give even peer-reviewed articles a close reading and close evaluation. It is glaringly obvious that the Quinn study did not control for the variable of heredity. It is also easy to overlook or misinterpret essential information when comparing the two studies. The Chapter 14 table “Steps in a Scientific Investigation” will be invaluable in guiding the discussion for this second half.

Consider the following:

Does Quinn respond to the Zadnik study? If yes, what is his response? In what respect does the Zadnik study replicate the Quinn study – how is the methodology the same? Where does it differ? Referring to the “Steps in a Scientific Investigation” table in Chapter 14, where do you see the most significant flaw in the Quinn study? The steps are numbered – refer by number to each step you think is relevant.

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Monica Hernandez (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/118358) Tuesday

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Good morning Professor and Class,

Myopia is a common affliction (one in four adult Americans is near-sighted1), and juvenile-onset myopia is believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors2. Results from

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animal experiments indicate that light cycles may affect the development of myopia3, 4, and claim to have extended these to humans 5. They reported a strong association between childhood myopia and night-time lighting before the age of two: there were five times more children with myopia among those who slept with room lights on than in those who slept in the dark, and an intermediate number among those sleeping with a dim night-light. However, we have been unable to find a link between night- time nursery (https://image-seeker.com/s/?q=nursery) lighting and the development of myopia in a sample of school children. You might, for example, explain how you came to have a broken leg (you tripped on a banana peel; it was raining; you were running, backward). However, when you’re proposing an explanation for something about which the contributing factors are in dispute, then you are making an argument. You might argue for an economic explanation for your unhappiness (you just got fired, so you have no income, so you’re unhappy), while your friend might argue for a psychological explanation for your unhappiness (you hated your job, so you subconsciously sabotage it, all but forcing your supervisor to fire you, and now you feel guilty, and therefore unhappy, plus your board) because now you have nothing to do and that makes you unhappy too.

Such causal explanations are often arguments because one is making a case for a particular cause, or set of causes, over another perhaps equally plausible cause, or set of causes.

Causal reasoning involves determining which of several possible explanations is the best account for a given phenomenon or occurrence. The issue can involve causation of a natural sciences kind (for example, biological, chemical, or physical causation) or causation of the social science (https://image-seeker.com/s/?q=science) kind i.e. social or psychological causation. Causation of the first kind is easier to establish because, at least in theory, all are measurable.

It may be incredibly complicated, intricate, and far-reaching, but even so, we can measure the elements involved.

Establishing causation is important for several reasons first, it enables us to establish explanations.

Second, it enables us to make predictions, and thus assess the various plans and policies about also the things. If causal explanations are correct our predictions will become true or our plans and policies will achieve their goals.

As with all inductive arguments, a strong causal argument is one in which the premises are true or acceptable, relevant, and sufficient. The degree of acceptability, relevance, and sufficiency affects the degree of strength. Often, additional information may increase our certainty about the conclusion.

References:

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds-

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live&scope=site

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143-144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site (https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Tuesday

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Monica, thanks for your post for this week and your thoughts on the studies performed. I am not detecting your thoughts on the methodologies of each study; what am I missing?

Identify the following argument as to type. And as best as you are able, identify the premise(s) and the conclusion.:

A recent study suggests that depression causes employees to have problems at work. Researchers compared 286 depressed workers with 193 others who were not depressed. Since only the depressed workers had such problems as fatigue, lack of motivation, and trouble managing their usual workload, researchers concluded that depression was the cause of their problems at work.

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Caitlyn Pienkowski (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/102153) Wednesday

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Hello!

In the study of Myopia and Ambient Night-Time Lighting, it points out some of the differences in their study of Myopia compared to the first study done in 1999. In the second study done, they found an association between parental myopia and nursery night-time lighting suggests that Quinn et al.’s study should have controlled for parental myopia ( Zadnik, 2000). The second study had older children and had different lighting compared to the first study, which gave different results that did not replicate the first study.

I believe one way of doing this is not always meant for all things. If that were the case, I think maybe the second study wouldn’t of shown any kind of improvements to their new ways of doing their part of the study.

References

Maguire, M., Shin, C., Stone, R., Quinn, G. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399(6732), p113-4. Retrieved from https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site (https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds-live&scope=site)

Irvin, B., Jones, L., Kleinstein, R., Manny, R., Mutti, D., Shin, J., Zadnik, K. (2000). Myapoia and ambient night-time lighting. Nature, 404(6774), p143-4. Retrieved from https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site (https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site) .

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Thursday

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Caitlyn, thank you for your post for this week and sharing your thoughts on the two articles. Could you analyze and evaluate the methodology of both studies and how methodology affected the differences in how the studies were reported?

Determine whether each of the following inductive arguments is an inductive generalization, an analogical argument, or a causal argument. Indicate which claim provides the clue.

1. Bill, Juan, and Franklin work in the IT department, and they are really bright. Thus, it’s likely that all members of the IT department are really bright.

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Reference

Jackson, D., & Newberry, P. (2016). Critical thinking: A user’s manual (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

2. Each of my five classes at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has been held in a large lecture hall. I expect that all of my classes here will be in large lecture halls.

3. Blair, Roscoe, Fatima, and Tin are all poets, and they all smoke cigarettes. Therefore, all poets probably smoke cigarettes.

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Elijah Wiggin (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/147419) Yesterday

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Hi Caitlyn,

These two studies are interesting in how it can be genetics or environment. The second study did have improvements on switching up how they experimented, which made for a wider spread different finding in numbers. Good post!

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Wei Wen Chiang (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/99157) Wednesday

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Hello all,

Myopia and ambient lighting at night The ambient lighting at night is strongly associated with prevalence of myopia. It further explains what the ambient lighting does during sleep. It also suggests that the absence of darkness in the day during early age may be a factor for myopia.

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Myopia and ambient night lighting More straight forward from the beginning. It tells you that there is a big correlation with children who sleep with lights on versus children who do not sleep with lights on and myopia. It goes more in depth while listing all the other risk factors – genetic and the age that was exposed to the light.

I believe the second case study is more reliable after reading both. It is more in depth. It also lists out other risk factors that can also affect children’s possibility with myopia instead of just the ambient lighting. While reading the first methodology, I feel like it spits out the result and try to convince you with it. In the other hand, it explains the cause of myopia first, then lead you to the conclusion.

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143- 144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds- live&scope=site (https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site)

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Caitlyn Pienkowski (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/102153) Wednesday

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Hello!

Your post is similar to mine as we both agree with what the studies shown. The second study was compared to the first and they made sure to adjust the study a bit to show better/different results which worked. The first study did mention that Myopia can be the cause of genetics and/or environmental factors as did the second study. However, the second study made sure to use different lighting and different age children to catch a difference. Great post!

-Caitlyn

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Thursday

Edited by Sonja Sheffield (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891) on Aug 13 at 9:05am

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Ann, thank you for your post to the 2nd discussion. What are your thoughts about the nationalities of the children in this study? Do you see a problem perhaps?

Rewrite each argument as a standard form categorical argument. Then, determine the validity of the argument.

Reference

Jackson, D., & Newberry, P. (2016). Critical thinking: A user’s manual (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

1. All soccer players are athletes, since all athletes are baseball players and no baseball players are soccer players.

2. If you passed geology, then you passed a science class. And if you passed a science class, then you have qualified for honors. Consequently, if you passed geology, then you qualified for honors.

3. Any senator is corruptible. So no senators are liars, as some liars are corruptible

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Ashley White (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/148682) Wednesday

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Hi Professor and Class!

Ambient lighting at night

This study showed myopia, or short sightedness, is present when there is ambient lighting at night. This study explained was myopia is at the beginning, but had a lot of unanswered questions at the end. This study had an age range median of 8 years old, but didn’t give the number of children or other risk factors that were in the study.

Ambient night time lighting

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In this study the children were older, the number of children were recorded clearer, and the tests and results were more detailed. This study concluded that the correlation for Myopia was more between the parental myopia and children, then night time lighting. The association we find between parental myopia and nursery night-time lighting suggests that Quinn et al.’s study should have controlled for parental myopia(Zadnik,2000).

Since the first study was already completed, the second study was able to use that information to look at it from a more detailed different approach to come up with their conclusion. The second study is more reliable because it was approached more thoroughly. It also looks at other risk factors involved instead of jumping solely to night time lighting.

References

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143-144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Thursday

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Ashley, thank you for your post for the second discussion. I was always concerned the shortage of Asian children, what about you?

Rewrite each argument as a standard form categorical syllogism. Then determine the validity of the argument.

Reference

1. Mascots are the only animals allowed in the gym. Thus, only mascots are nuisances, since the only animals allowed in the gym are nuisances.

2. Every war crime is beyond any kind of moral justification. It demeans innocent humans, and anything that demeans innocent humans is beyond any kind of moral justification.

3. Avatars are sacred figures, and shamans are, too. So avatars are shamans.

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Edited by Sonja Sheffield (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891) on Aug 13 at 9:09am

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Jackson, D., & Newberry, P. (2016). Critical thinking: A user’s manual (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

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Dijana Rahmanovic (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/64315) Yesterday

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The difference in age could play a factor between the two different studies. Especially considering they weren’t done simultaneously but the second study had the advantage of the results from the first study. Do you think if the second study had been done first the results of the first study could have been impacted or ended up with a different conclusion?

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Elijah Wiggin (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/147419) Wednesday

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“Myopia is a common affliction, and juvenile-onset myopia is believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.” (Nature, 2000) A study done on myopia and ambient lighting at night was done with age, ethnicity, and if either of the parents were myopic. Doing a study this way gets very detailed information and determines accurate numbers, The study of myopia and ambient night time lighting was done with less specific groups. They split them in gender and age. This way of experimenting will give different results because the range was a little bit wider.

Maguire, M., Shin, C., Stone, R., Quinn, G. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399(6732), p113-4. Retrieved from https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site (https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds-live&scope=site)

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Irvin, B., Jones, L., Kleinstein, R., Manny, R., Mutti, D., Shin, J., Zadnik, K. (2000). Myapoia and ambient night-time lighting. Nature, 404(6774), p143-4. Retrieved from https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds- live&scope=site (https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Thursday

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Elijah, thank you for your post for this week. You did not respond to the question concerning the methodology of each of these studies.

For each of the following pairs of inductive generalizations, determine which is stronger, and justify your evaluation.

a. The majority of students on campus exercise regularly. I took a survey of students leaving the weight room, and the vast majority of the respondents said they exercised regularly.

b. The majority of students on campus exercise regularly. I took a survey of students outside of the cafeteria, and the vast majority of the respondents said they exercised regularly.

a. The local newspaper conducted a survey of its readers to determine which comics were most popular. The majority of the 175 respondents said that Bizzarowas their favorite. Thus, Bizarromust be the most popular comic strip among all readers.

b. The local newspaper conducted a survey of its readers to determine which comics were most popular. The majority of the 175 respondents under the age of 21 said that Bizarrowas their favorite. Thus, Bizarromust be the most popular comic strip among all readers.

Reference

Jackson, D., & Newberry, P. (2016). Critical thinking: A user’s manual (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

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Monica Hernandez

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/118358) Yesterday

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Hi Elijah,

I see you gave the definition for Myopia but are missing a few things from the discussion. One of the articles was straight forward than the other one. It mentions the logic with children who sleep with lights on versus children who do not sleep with lights on and myopia. It tends to go more in- depth while listing all risk factors – genetic and the age that was exposed to the light.

Thank you for sharing!

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Brittany Varnes (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/129972) Wednesday

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Hi Professor and Class,

The two articles have a common trait in that they have been published in the same journal- Nature. There is a different time frame of one year between the year of publications. The Quinn et al. article was published in 1999 and the authors appear to be in the early stages of describing Myopia since their evidence is shallow and gives only the basic information. The authors have not also used any evidence-based practice to test their hypothesis. Rather, they rely on the information collected through the questionnaires to make a correlation between incidences of Myopia among children that were born within the first six months of 1998 and early infant exposure to light. Quinn and his colleagues apply empirical reasoning in coming up with their explanation as they realize that many Asian children suffering from Myopia have been affected by light.

The second study is by Zadnik et al. and was conducted a year after the first research. The 2000 study has better quality evidence that supports the conclusion. Their research was based on the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error study, which revealed no correlation between Myopia and early infant exposure to night-time light. Zadnik and colleagues review the findings of the first study and give their differing findings. The second study exhibits strong statistical evidence that is used to support the conclusion. The authors gathered credible information by

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scrutinizing the existing literature about Myopia to form a research design.

References

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G., & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399(6732), 113-114. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. Nature, 404(6774), 143- 144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Thursday

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Brittany, thank you for your post for this week. What is the challenge with only using questionnaires?

Let’s have some practice in identifying the kinds of similarities needed to support an argument by analogy. As a note of similarity is important if noticing that two things are similar in a way that gives you a reason to think that the things might be similar in some other way. For example: adopting a dog and having a child. Adopting a dog is like having a child and that both require taking responsibility for another living being. Also, they can both turn your home into a big mess! Identify the similarities that support the following argument.

First-degree murder and euthanasia (physician-assisted death).

Reference

Morrow, D. R. & Weston, A. (2019). A workbook for arguments. Hackett Publishing Company: Indianapolis, IN.

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Jasmine Burgess (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/154614) Wednesday

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“Myopia and Ambient Night-Time Lighting” is an article that was written to explain the onset of myopia in juveniles. This article believed that this condition was not only genetic, but it has environmental factors contributing to myopia as well. The article spoke about how parental factors play a part in myopia outside of night-time lighting. On the other hand, “Myopia and Ambient lighting at Night” focused on the effects of ambient lighting during sleep and how it causes myopia versus sleeping in darkness which can prevent myopia from forming.

Both studies focused on the same information but took different approaches to draw a conclusion. The article “Myopia and Ambient Night-Time lighting” was able to form their information off the study information that was presented in the article “Myopia and Ambient lighting at Night”. Night-time lighting was able to present their article from a more detailed prospective using the information that was provided in the other article. I believe this article was more reliable because of this. The article was able to use the important information and thoroughly expound on it.

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G., & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399(6732), 113–114.

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE Study Group. Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error. Nature, 404(6774), 143–144.

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Britney Parkerton (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/138709) 1:44am

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Hello Jasmine,

I agree that the second study definitely used a lot of the information than the first study did. It seemed that the CLEERE group study took a lot of the factors from the 1999 study, but also added a more variables into their study. The most imperative was the fact that Quinn and his group of researchers did not determine whether the parents also had Myopia. Once CLEERE added this into their study it helped determine that many of the children that were exposed to ambient night- light and suffered from Myopia also had parents that had Myopia. I also thought that the second

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study was more reliable. I think the second study looked at a much broader span of information that could contribute to an adolescent developing Myopia.

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Adilene Alvarez (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/127931) Wednesday

” Reply #

!

Hello,

Myopia and ambient lighting at night, “The effects of light exposure on vision, and find a strong association between myopia and night-time ambient light exposure during sleep in children before they reach two years of age” (Quinn,1999). A study made to prove myopia was not only cause by genetics but also because of environmental factors. Myopia increases with nighttime lighting during sleep on children before 2years of age. However, Myopia and ambient night-time lighting study stated, “Our Results indicate that myopia is unlikely to develop in children as a result of exposure to night-time lighting as infants”(Zadnik,2000). The second study is more reliable because the study tested other risk factors that could developed myopia. The study was also conducted with a different range of ages instead of focusing on children under two.

References:

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143-144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Thursday

!

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Adilene, thanks for posting to the second discussion. I don’t see where you answered the question of, “. . .analyze and evaluate the methodology of both studies and how methodology affected the differences in how the studies were reported.”

Let’s have some practice in identifying the kinds of similarities needed to support an argument by analogy. As a note of similarity is important if noticing that two things are similar in a way that gives you a reason to think that the things might be similar in some other way. For example: adopting a dog and having a child. Adopting a dog is like having a child and that both require taking responsibility for another living being. Also, they can both turn your home into a big mess! Identify the similarities that support the following argument.

Planet Earth and a globe.

Reference

Morrow, D. R. & Weston, A. (2019). A workbook for arguments. Hackett Publishing Company: Indianapolis, IN.

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Christine Mercado (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/140314) Wednesday

!

Hello Class,

According to the Myopia and Ambient Lighting at Night (https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds-live&scope=site) Myopia or short-sightness, is a leading risk factor for blindness, it predisposes people to retinal detachment, glaucoma, and retinal degeneration. Genetics and environmental factors play a role in development. Myopia appears in early childhood or throughout adulthood. Exposure to ambient light increases prevalence of myopia. This case study did not include the specific ages and number of children involved in the research.

According to the Myopia and Ambient Nightime lighting The article also said that there was a correlation between childhood myopia and night lighting. This case study examined a subsample of 1,220 children. The study was also specific on the groups of children that were examined, their ages, and ethnicities. I felt that this study was more detailed and specific on the groups examined, and the conclusion was evident. I feel that the second study showed more reliability in their research.

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References

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114.https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site (https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds-live&scope=site)

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143-144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Thursday

” Reply #

!

Christine, thank you for your response to the 2nd question for this week.

Let’s have some practice in identifying the kinds of similarities needed to support an argument by analogy. As a note of similarity is important if noticing that two things are similar in a way that gives you a reason to think that the things might be similar in some other way. For example: adopting a dog and having a child. Adopting a dog is like having a child and that both require taking responsibility for another living being. Also, they can both turn your home into a big mess! Identify the similarities that support the following argument.

A mouse and an adult human.

Reference

Morrow, D. R. & Weston, A. (2019). A workbook for arguments. Hackett Publishing Company: Indianapolis, IN.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/138071)

8/15/20, 4:36 AM Page 18 of 39

Danin Sibert (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/138071) Wednesday

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!

Hi class,

After examining both articles, I found it interesting that upon first read both articles looks very informative and I would have initially stopped after reading one or the other thinking that I had enough knowledge on the subject. They both are scholarly articles published in a database, which would allow anyone to believe that the information is reliable. The data that was collected at the time made sense for the first article, Myopia and ambient lighting at night, but after more research and examination the second article, Myopia and ambient night lighting, had different results. I connected that to the textbook when explaining characteristics of empirical reasoning. The textbook stated, “other scientists are not only welcome, but they are encouraged to gather additional data, to re-create experiments, and to recalculate statistical findings”(Facione & Gittens, 2016, p 286). In Myopia and ambient night lighting the authors started off by stating that they did not find the same correlations that Quinn did. They then explained that, “Quinn et al.’s study should have controlled for parental myopia. Another possible difference is that Quinn et al.’s sample is not representative of juvenile myopes” (Zadnik, 2000, p 144 ). The second study done by Zadnik had a more diverse study group which gave a better population of people.

Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking critically. 3 . Ed. Pearson:Boston, MA.

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143-144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site

rd

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Thursday

!

Danin, thank you for posting in the second discussion. Nice post.

Let’s look at evaluating arguments by analogy. Evaluate how well each of the following arguments keeping in mind that you need to think systematically about how similar these two things are. To do that, it will help to structure your thinking in terms of four questions:

1. In what ways are the two things similar?

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2. How is each of these similarities relevant to the conclusion?;

3. In what ways are the two things different; and

4. How is each of these differences relevant to the conclusion?

A store owner in Colorado had an unusual way of deterring shoplifters. When he caught one, the shop owner threatened to call the police unless the shoplifter turned over a shoe. He found that shoplifters were too embarrassed to come back to the store after having surrendered their shoe. The police use the following argument to stop this practice: demanding a shoe in return for leniency is like demanding $20 in return for leniency. Both involve threatening someone to get them to give up something of value. It would be a form of robbery to demand $20 in return for leniency. Thus, it’s a form of robbery to demand a shoe in return for leniency. (Adapted from: Associated Press, “Liquor Store Owner Told to Stop Taking Shoplifters’ Shoes, Post Independent (Glenwood Springs, CO), https://www.postindependent.com/news/durango- liquor-store-owner-told-to-stop-taking-shoplifers-shoes/ (https://www.postindependent.com/news/durango-liquor-store-owner-told-to-stop-taking-shoplifers- shoes/)

Reference

Morrow, D. R. & Weston, A. (2019). A workbook for arguments. Hackett Publishing Company: Indianapolis, IN.

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Danin Sibert (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/138071) Yesterday

!

The instances that are debated is whether the shop owner should be able to take a shoe from shoplifters in his store since the shoplifter stole something from his store, and the police claim that is the same as demanding $20 from the thief so it should not be allowed. These instances are similar because the store owner would be getting something in return of the shoplifter taking something from them. This is relevant to the conclusion because it shows that the shoplifter stealing is a bad thing, and so would be stealing from the shoplifter. Two wrongs do not make a right. They are different because the shoplifter was acting out of selfishness to steal from the store owner and the store owner is just trying to make it even and take something from the thief since he took something from him. Overall, the shoplifter was wrong for stealing from the shop owner and there is no excuse for that. The shop owner acted

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negatively in response but all he wanted was to make it “even”. The right thing to do would have been to call the cops from the beginning.

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Dijana Rahmanovic (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/64315) Wednesday

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Hello professor and class.

The article by Quinn (et al), Myopia and ambient lighting at night, describes the study carried out as a questionnaire regarding their children’s light exposure before and during the age of 2. The questionnaire was completed by the parents of children ages 2-16 from Asian American, African American and Caucasian descent who were seen as outpatients of a pediatric ophthalmology clinic. The article by Zadnik (et al), Myopia and ambient night-time lighting, describes a study that was also carried out as a questionnaire parents filled out, answering the same question of how much light exposure before and after the age of two their children received. The children included in the study were not clinical outpatients, but belonged to the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive error multicentre. The median age of the children was 10.2 and the study included Hispanic children, as well.

Slight differences in the studies ultimately caused their results to differ. The second study included a wider range of racial backgrounds, myopic parents, and considered the ages of each individual included while the first study had a smaller selection of races, did not consider myopic parents or ages other than the vary general range of 2 to 16 years old with a focus on much younger children.

References

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143- 144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?

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url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site (https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Thursday

” Reply #

!

Dijana, thank you for posting to the second discussion for this week.

Let’s look at evaluating arguments by analogy. Evaluate how well each of the following arguments keeping in mind that you need to think systematically about how similar these two things are. To do that, it will help to structure your thinking in terms of four questions:

1. In what ways are the two things similar?

2. How is each of these similarities relevant to the conclusion?;

3. In what ways are the two things different; and

4. How is each of these differences relevant to the conclusion?

The earth supports living organisms. Europa, one of the moons of Jupiter, is like earth and that both have large oceans of liquid saltwater. Therefore, Europa supports living organisms. (Adapted from: Mike Wall, “Signs of Life on Europa May Be Just Beneath the Surface. “Scientific American, July 23 2018).

Reference

Morrow, D. R. & Weston, A. (2019). A workbook for arguments. Hackett Publishing Company: Indianapolis, IN.

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Jessica Woods (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/115159) Wednesday

!

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The casual argument conducted by Quinn, Shin, Maguire, and Stone found that children who were exposed to ambient light during sleep at night during the first two years of life had a great chance of developing myopia. The research sample used 479 individuals between the ages of 2-16 with a median age of 8. The children were seen as outpatients in a university pediatric ophthalmology clinic where parents completed a questionnaire on the child’s light exposure both at present and before the age of two years old. This research was strongly dependent on parent reporting and conclusions were drawn according to the parent’s accuracy.

When Zadnik, Jones, Irvin, Kleinstein, Manny, Shin, and Mutti tried to replicate the study they found that the conclusion to the previous study was false. In their conclusion, they found that juvenile-onset myopia was believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors and not ambient lighting while the child was sleeping at night. The study was done from the multicentre Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) and used a larger sample size of 1220 individuals aged 2-24 with a mean age of 10.2 years old. The sample also included a more equal variety of ethnicities. Another variable in this study was the refractive status of the child’s parents. Because this study used a larger sample size, was more inclusive and equal with ethnicities, and also included the genetics of the child, the conclusion is more accurate.

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143-144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site

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Brian Tipton (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/139028) Wednesday

!

Hello Professor and class,

It is noted that myopia has a prevalent strength related to the use of ambient lighting at night. Given an explanation of the effect of ambient lighting on sleep and the absence of darkness in younger age

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could play a role in myopia.The study shows that those you sleep in darkness and children who sleep with lights on have a higher chance of myopia. The study also states that genetics and the age of exposure to light could play into development of myopia.

The second study used older children, more in depth test with results and clearer explanations. It is noted that with this study there was a bigger correlation that focused on the genetic outlook of myopia in children and their parents. Quinn et al.’s study suggests it should have controlled for parental myopia in comparison to nursery night time lighting and parental myopia. (Zadnik, K. 2000)

Maguire, M., Shin, C., Stone, R., Quinn, G. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399(6732), p113-4. Retrieved from https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site (https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds-live&scope=site)

Irvin, B., Jones, L., Kleinstein, R., Manny, R., Mutti, D., Shin, J., Zadnik, K. (2000). Myapoia and ambient night-time lighting. Nature, 404(6774), p143-4. Retrieved from https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds- live&scope=site (https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site)

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Marija Mozuraityte (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/157292) Wednesday

!

Hello Class,

Myopia and Ambient lighting at night:

This study represents how myopia and ambient lighting go hand in hand as one light appears, so does the other. This study was done on children who fall asleep with lighting versus no lighting. It factors in the effects of absence of darkness during the day which may lead to myopia.

Ambient nighttime lighting:

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In this study, it mentions the correlation between parental myopia and nursery nighttime lighting. This study is the same as the other yet instead this one explains in far more detail the connection.

In my opinion, I believe the ambient nighttime lighting is much more relevant as it provides more in depth understanding of the matter. Such as children’s risk factors of ambient lighting and myopia as well as the connection.

Reference:

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114.

https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/loginurl=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds-live&scope=site

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143-144.

https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/loginurl=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site

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Jasmine Burgess (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/154614) Yesterday

” Reply #

!

Hi Marija,

We had similar views about which article was more reliable. I too feel that the nighttime lighting article went into great depth about the effects that nighttime lighting has on myopia. This article used similar information from the first article and expounded on it giving more details about the issue. Thanks for sharing.

Jasmine

8/15/20, 4:36 AM Page 25 of 39

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Amanda Torres (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/145531) Wednesday

!

Hello,

In the first article “Myopia and Ambient Lighting At Night” discusses the effects of ambient light while someone sleeps and its affect on a person versus a person who sleeps in darkness. Myopia is short- sightedness, so essentially a person can see things when they are very close to them, but they appear blurry or can’t see them if they are far away. This article was very informative about what Myopia is and how it works, but statistics of the children who were tested for the study were not that great. “An influence of ambient lighting during sleep on refractive development is plausible, because eyelids of human adults and infants transmit some visible light, mostly at longer wavelengths.” (Quinn, 1999) It says it is plausible, but the vocabulary used doesn’t make the reader have an overwhelming sense of fact. It did not give any other factors of the children tested or other controls used, and had many unanswered ideas throughout.

“Myopia and Ambient Night-Time Lighting” talks about Myopia as well but in my opinion does a better job overall in regards to research and production. In this study they tested children who were older and the testing information was clearer. They also claimed that Myopia was not only linked to genetics but to other outside factors as well, such as environment, to strengthen their argument. “The proportion of myopic children with two myopic parents was significantly greater than the proportion of myopic children with zero or one myopic parent.” (Zadnik, 2000)

I believe that the second study was stronger and their methods were clearer than the first one. The second one shows strong statistical data that is used as evidence to support its claim. It also acknowledges other factors that could be the reason for results. While both studies focused on the same topic, they had separate reasons for their conclusions.

References:

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143-144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site

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Juliana Shahly (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/154119) Thursday

!

Hello Professor and class,

Myopia is an eye condition in which a person experiences nearsightedness.

Both of these articles utilized different methodologies regarding myopia and night-time lighting. In the first article, Quinn et al. (1999) state that at the University Pediatric Ophthalmology Clinic, a questionnaire was given to parents of children from the age of 2-16 years old “between the months of January and June of 1998.” The questionnaire consisted of questions that were about exposure to light in regard to the child’s myopia (Quinn et al., 1999). Also, the questionnaire was given out before the child turned 2, and in the present (Quinn et al., 1999). Some children were excluded from this study due to certain eye conditions such as glaucoma and cataracts (Quinn et al., 1999). the study found that myopia was strongly linked with exposure to light while asleep in the first 2 years post-birth (Quinn et al., 1999).

In the second article, Zadnik et al. (2000) mention that a subsample of children was used in the study from the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) in regard to nursery night-time lighting. The children’s age group that was studied was 10.2 years old (Zadnik et al., 2000). The sample size of the research was 1,220 children (Zadnik et al., 2000). This study found that there was no association between myopia and nursery night-time lighting among the children who were studied (Zadnik et al., 2000).

As you can see in both of these articles, different methodologies were used in getting to these results. In the first article, the questionnaire was utilized at an ophthalmology clinic (Quinn et al., 1999). However, in the second article, a subsample of children was utilized in the (CLEERE) study group (Zadnik et al., 2000). Both of these articles yielded different results. The first article found that there was an association between myopia and exposure to light among children (Quinn et al., 1999). On the other hand, the second article found no association between myopia and nursery night-time lighting among children (Zadnik et al., 2000).

“Empirical Investigation and the application of our critical thinking skills and habits of mind to scientific inquiry are fundamentally group endeavors” (Facione & Gittens, 2016, p. 297).

References: rd

8/15/20, 4:36 AM Page 27 of 39

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Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking critically. 3 . Ed. Pearson:Boston, MA.

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site (https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds-live&scope=site)

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143-144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site (https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site)

rd

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Britney Parkerton (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/138709) Thursday

!

Hello Professor Sheffield and class,

These articles both show us the studies of developing Myopia, and what factors genetics and environment have on it. They were published only one year apart but seem to conclude different information. In the article Myopia and Ambient Lighting at Night (1999), the authors discuss how they believe that Myopia is caused by genetic and environmental factors. They performed research showing that children under 2 that are exposed to night-time ambient light had a compelling association with Myopia (pg. 113). However, in the conclusion of the study it gives a lot of variables that show they did not use evidence-based practice, but rather gathered questionnaires on children’s exposure to ambient night- time light. In the conclusion the author states, “The results are further qualified by the limitations of collecting behavioural data by questionnaire and the lack of information on whether parental lighting preferences independently associate with other factors known to be correlated with myopia, such as parental socio-economic or refraction status” (Quinn et al., 1999, pg. 1). This study does not seem to use empirical research because it does not appear the experimental conditions were met. There were too many unknown variables listed at the end of the study.

However, the other study conducted titled Myopia and ambient night-time lighting (2000) did not show

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the same results as Quinn’s research just a year earlier. Their research showed that instead of children being more likely to be diagnosed with Myopia from ambient night-time lighting it was more so correlated with the parents of the child and their genetic disposition to Myopia. The author’s point out that Quinn’s lack of research regarding the parental background could have played a large role in the results. While I believe the people that conducted the second study were more thorough, I still do not believe they used empirical research. This is because while they performed more variables and looked at the parents of the children as well, they still questioned their conclusion and said more research needed to be done.

References

Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking Critically (3 Edition). Pearson Education, Inc.

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143-144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site

rd

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Lorika Roche (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/144435) Thursday

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Hello Professor and class,

Myopia and ambient lighting at night: this study was done through questionnaires rather than a more direct approach. This study focuses of ambient lighting during sleep before two years of age and how it can increase the possibility of myopia being developed in children (Quinn, G. E., et al., 1999). However, since this is a questionnaire approach results can be skewed due to things such as personal bias and inaccurate representation.

Myopia and night-time lighting: This study has a more diverse group of participants and also included more variables. Zadnik not that their findings differed from the other trial and emphasized the role of

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parental myopia, which was not a consideration for the study done by Quinn et al. Zadnik concluded that the development of myopia was a combination of genetics and environment (Zadnik, K., et al., 2000).

I prefer the study done by Zadnik over the one done by Quinn et al. because it included more variables. I read Quinn’s study first and I did question the lack of genetic history before moving on to the study by Zadnik. Zadnik took information from the first study and included variables that went beyond lighting, and I think that is what makes the second study more reliable.

Refrences

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143-144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site

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Scott O’Malley (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/84538) Thursday

!

Myopia and ambient lighting at night

In the first article, the authors believed that they night light had an effect on children under the ages of 2. The study did not disclose the amount of participants.

Myopia and ambient night-time lighting

In the second article, the authors did the survey by looking more into the background of the parents. They surveyed 213 children from the ages of 2-24 through a phone call with the parents and if they can recall if they sued a night light. Their resource said that children with two myopic parents is a bigger risk but in the end the authors were unsure about the results as the sample was not big enough or enough facts to backup the research.

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I believe the second article was a better example because of the statistics it has provided as well with different approach. It also mentioned the range in age and the number of children. In the end both I feel were not big enough samples and need more studying on.

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143-144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Yesterday

!

Scott, thanks for your post for this week. I also had difficulty or I should say a challenge with the number of people studies particularly the Asian childrne.

Practice recognizing errors of relevance that go off-topic:

Determine the type of fallacy below and explain your answer.

Potts: The government should not get involved in censorship. People can decide for themselves what they want to see and what they don’t want to see. After all, we’re adults. Let the marketplace decide. It responds to us—if we don’t buy it, it won’t get made.

McQuilkin: As long as the marketplace doesn’t force images upon us. Pornography is often on the front cover. Which is often in the front window.

Potts: Okay, so some control over display might be warranted. But no control over the images themselves.

McQuilkin: But women can’t even agree about which pictures are pornographic.

Reference

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Tittle, P. (2014). Critical thinking: An appeal to reason. Rutledge:NY.

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Navjeet Mattu (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/72553) Thursday

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!

Hello Everyone,

The first study that was done on myopia (short-sightedness) was completed, as they came with more broader results (from other evidence, not their own). They compared age/ethnicity with myopia due to the use of ambient night-time lighting. They were unclear regarding some results, where the second study was able to take the first study, and conduct their own study to come up with a detailed report/claim. They had used older children compared to the first study who did not, but conducted their own study to get their own detailed results. Studies that are backed up by results, they tend to be more reliable versus studies based of other results, as they could have missed something or did not have the right controls (as mentioned in the second article).

Reference:

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143- 144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site

Navi

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Yesterday

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!

Navjeet thanks for your post for this week. Did you wonder as to why there were so few Asian children in the study? Just curious.

Determine the type of fallacy below and explain your answer.

In an episode of Boston Legal, a developer is contesting the classification of salmon as an endangered species by adding farmed salmon to the numbers (when that’s done, it appears that salmon are not in danger of becoming extinct) in order to be allowed to proceed with a development project which will detrimentally affect the nearby salmon population. The opposition contests his inclusion of farmed salmon in the numbers. The developer says at one point something like “Is a fish going to hold up my city?”

Reference

Tittle, P. (2014). Critical thinking: An appeal to reason. Rutledge:NY.

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Ashlyn Nichols (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/145323) Thursday

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Hello Everyone,

(I apologize for the late post I didn’t realize we had two discussions this week)

Both of these articles utilized different methodologies regarding myopia and night-time lighting. The first article titled Myopia and Ambient Night-time Lighting stated that “strong association between childhood myopia and night-time lighting before the age of two: there were five times more children with myopia among those who slept with room lights on than in those who slept in the dark, and an intermediate number among those sleeping with a dim nightlight” (Zadnik et al., 2000). The article also goes more in depth while listing all the other risk factors; genetic and the age which the individual was exposed to the light.

The second article is titled Myopia and Ambient Lighting at Night studied “myopia, or short-

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sightedness, which occurs when the image of distant objects, focused by the cornea and lens, falls in front of the retina” (Quinn et al., 1999). Furthermore these findings conclude that myopia is the leading cause in blindness “because it predisposes individuals to retinal detachment, retinal degeneration and glaucoma” (Quinn et al., 1999). This article used graphs that can be easily understood.

Both studies focused on the same information but took different approaches to draw a result. I personally enjoyed article two Myopia and Ambient Lighting at Night more than article one Myopia and Ambient Night-time Lighting. I believe this because article two had information to help perform their studies. Reading the first methodology, I feel like it jumps directly to the conclusion and then attempts to convince the reader of their findings. The second methodology explains the cause of myopia first which helped me better understand what was going on, and then leading us to the conclusion.

References:

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143-144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Yesterday

!

Ashlyn, thank you for posting your response for this week. Understandable response here. I was always concerned about the lack of Asian children.

Evaluating arguments about causes

A good argument should do two things. First, a good argument about causes should convince you that there really is a correlation between two things. Remember that a correlation is a systematic relationship between two things. Giving a few examples of one thing following another, for instance, does not prove that there is a correlation between the two things.

There are two main ways on argument to establish a correlation. It might do this by citing sources that establish the correlation. Alternatively, it might give an argument by example or a statistical argument. When a claim about correlation relies on either of these techniques, you will need to apply the rules to decide how well it does in establishing a correlation. Second, a good

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argument about causes should convince you that the best explanation for that correlation is that one thing causes the other. Decide whether argument does this, you’ll need to brainstorm alternative explanations of the correlation.

If you think there are better explanations for correlation, then the argument has failed.

What are your thoughts about this example:

Physical exercise improves people’s executive function – the set of physiological ability is involved in planning and executing a task. People who get regular exercise have better executive function than their age peers who don’t. This is because the people with better executive function exercise more. When inactive people begin exercising, there executive function improves. Adapted from: Saundra Aamodt and Sam Wang, “Exercise on the Brain,” New York Times, Nov. 8, 2007.

Reference

A work for arguments, 2nd. ed. [ Kindle Edition].

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Dianne Cruz (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/120562) Thursday

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Myopia or being short-sighted occurs when the image of distant objects, focused by the cornea and lens, falls in front of the retina. According to the Myopia and ambient lighting at night article, myopia is now a leading risk factor for acquired blindness in adults because it can cause degeneration. It is believed it can come from genetics or environmental factors but the exact causes are still not understood. This can also happen in both children and adults. When looking over both articles the big numbers that stuck out were the sample size. How many people studied to get the results. Myopia and ambient night-time lighting sampled 1,220. Myopia and ambient lighting at night sampled 449. That is a big difference. Not just in these studies but in any studies. Personally I think I would trust an article more depending on the number of people they studied. Clinical trials are huge when doing research for something. They are “studies performed in people that are aimed at evaluating a medical, surgical, or behavioral intervention” (National Institute on Aging. (n.d.). It is the main way for researchers to get their data and to tell if the new product is working.

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Turbert, D. (2020, June 26). Nearsightedness: What Is Myopia? Retrieved from https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/myopia-nearsightedness (https://www.aao.org/eye- health/diseases/myopia-nearsightedness)

National Institute on Aging. (n.d.). What are clinical trials and studies? https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/what-are-clinical-trials-and-studies

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10335839&site=eds- live&scope=site

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143-144. https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=mdc&AN=10724157&site=eds-live&scope=site

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Yesterday

” Reply #

!

Dianne, thank you for posting for this week. What are your thoughts are the number sampled of Asian children?

Identify the argument type and evaluate the strength of any causal arguments and justify your evaluation.

The theory of evolution is truly scientific, because we can think of experiments and observations that would support it or render it incorrect. And any time we can do that, the theory is truly scientific.—Wicander and Monroe, Historical Geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time.

Reference

Tittle, P. (2014). Critical thinking: An appeal to reason. Rutledge:NY.

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Melissa Shetto (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/152005) Yesterday

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Hello everyone

Myopia and Ambient lighting at night

According to what I have gathered from this week’s reading and the articles on Myopia clinical studies done by Quinn et al and Zadnik et al the following are the similarities and differences I found between the two studies.

The Myopia and Ambient lighting at night study by Quinn et al

This study mainly focused on ambient night light as the major cause of myopia in children. The study concentrated on the effects ambient lighting had on vision during sleep for children before they reached two years. Quinn et al used a small sample and did not take into account any other possible factors that may lead to myopia in children. The sample used was chosen from children already attending specialized clinics and it did not include other children form the general population. There was only one literary work mentioned and referenced in this study and it was based on studies on animals with refractive vision but no reference was done to any other work that may have involved studies done on humans. Also, the study’s conclusion was not supported by strong evidence that may have otherwise proved the correlation between ambient night light and myopia.

The Myopia and Ambient night-time lighting by Zadnik et al

Zadnik et al focused their study on a larger sample size derived from the general population and not just from children attending specialized clinics, they used research subjects instead of a clinical population. They used more factors to determine whether or not ambient night lighting caused myopia in children this included also measuring and controlling the parents of the children with myopia to identify if the parents having myopia or not determined the likelihood of their children having myopia as well. The study included several literary works including the study conducted by Quinn et al.

Does Quinn et al respond to Zadnik et al?

Yes, later Quinn et al responded to the comments and remarks about their study and findings made in the study conducted by Zadnik et al. Quinn et al further explained and defend the choices they made during their study including why they chose a small sample size that only included children from clinics around the age of 8 years and why they did not take myopic parents into consideration as factors that may cause myopia in the children.

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In not being able to find the strong association reported by us of childhood myopia with night-time ambient lighting before age 2 years, Zadnik et al. and Gwiazda et al. ascribe our results to a tendency of myopic parents to illuminate their children’s rooms at night. Family studies of myopia typically have difficulty separating environmental from genetic factors, however, as sib-sib correlations for myopia decrease with increasing age difference and within-family refractive similarities decrease with adjustment for the ‘classic’ environmental factors of education and close work. Thus, shared inter- generational behavior (such as use of night lighting) cannot be excluded a priori as contributing to any familial association for myopia (Quinn et al., 1999).

How does the Zadnik et al study replicate the Quinn study, how is the methodology the same? Where does it differ?

The Zadnik study claims not to have replicated the Quinn study, although they mention using questions from Quinn’s study and added a few to those for their own questionnaires. The methodology sued in the studies are similar in that they are both studying the same problem. Their methodology differs in the size of sample used, the population the sample was derived from, as well as the factors measured in the study.

Referring to the Steps in a Scientific Investigation, where do you see the most significant flaw in the Quinn study?

The Quinn study had flaws in step 3 of the scientific investigation which according to Facione (2016) involves reviewing scientific literature from the work of others to see what can be learned about the hypothesis. In the case of Quinn et al only one literary work was used and this did not help in giving deep insight on their hypothesis. The second flaw was in step 4 of the Quinn study which involves the identification of all factors related to the hypothesis that need to be controlled or measured, and so in the case of the study Quinn excluded other relatable factors from the study, such as the myopic parents of the children involved in the study.

References

Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G., & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and Ambient lighting at night. Nature. 399, 133-4.

https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=1&sid=30dae5d6-d883-478a-8536-ba21f8351a49%40sdc-v-sessmgr02 (https://eds-a- ebscohost-com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=30dae5d6-d883-

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478a-8536-ba21f8351a49%40sdc-v-sessmgr02)

Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and Ambient Night-time lighting. Nature. 404, 143-4.

https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=1&sid=97aa5c64-f572-4b80-922d-ffdbdf4f8d68%40sdc-v-sessmgr03 (https://eds-a-ebscohost- com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=97aa5c64-f572-4b80-922d- ffdbdf4f8d68%40sdc-v-sessmgr03)

Facione, P. & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Thinking Critically. 3 . Ed. Pearson: Boston, MA.

rd

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/65138/users/97891)Sonja Sheffield (Instructor) Yesterday

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!

Thank you Melissa, for your post for this week. Good post and valid points made in your response.

There are many ways of ensuring that a sample is (adequately) representative but it is enough for present purposes to mention four:

If you wanted to find out what proportion of the population of your country, or region, write with their left hand, how would you select a representative sample?

Reference

Oxford Guide to Effective Argument and Critical Thinking

1. Random sampling, where subjects are chosen blind, and any one person has as much change of being chosen as anyone else;

2. Systematic sampling, where, for example, every 5 or 10 person in a population (a group, perhaps) is chosen;

3. Stratified sampling, where subjects are grouped by age, or other criterion, so as to reflect the proportions of these groups (or strata) in the population;

4. Convenience sampling, where subjects are chosen to happen to be available.

th th

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