Digestive System

1. What are the functions that the liver, gallbladder and pancreas play in digestion? Explain.

2. Chapter 5 discusses many pathological conditions related to the digestive system and divides them based on their location (oral cavity, upper GI tract, Lower GI tract ect..). Pick 4 pathological conditions, one from each group, define them and explain the signs, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for each one.

3. You have learned so far the suffixes -tomy, -ectomy and -stomy. Explain the differences in the meanings of each suffix and illustrate using examples of medical terms that are realted to the digestive system.

4. This week, you are expected to go over the digestive system case study under the week’s module. In the case study, the patient (Mrs. Kreider) has undergone false diagnosis multiple times (indigestion, diverticulosis, jaundice, colonic polyps, etc…).

a. Describe each misdiagnosed condition, the reason behind each misdiagnosis and the lab tests and procedures that were used.

b. What was the actual diagnosis? What is the medical term for this condition? What was done to reach this diagnosis?

Chapter 5
Digestive System

Copyright © 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives

Name the organs of the digestive system and describe their locations and functions.
Describe disease processes and symptoms that affect these organs.
Define combining forms for organs and the meaning of related terminology using these word parts.
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter 5
Lesson 5.1

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Introduction

Digestive or gastrointestinal system

performs three main functions:

digestion
absorption
elimination
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Define, discuss, and describe the three main functions of the digestive system.

What are enzymes, and what function do they serve in the digestive process?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

INTRODUCTION:
DIGESTION

Food is broken down and travels through the gastrointestinal tract.
Digestive enzymes aid breakdown of complex nutrients.
Proteins → amino acids
Sugars → glucose
Fats → fatty acids
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

INTRODUCTION:
ABSORPTION

Digested food passes into bloodstream through walls of small intestine.
Nutrients travel to all cells of the body
Cells burn nutrients to release energy stored in food.
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

INTRODUCTION:
ELIMINATION

Body eliminates solid waste materials that cannot be absorbed into bloodstream.
The large intestine concentrates feces.
The wastes pass out of the body through the anus.
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Organs of the Digestive System

The gastrointestinal tracts begins with the oral cavity.
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

In which major systems of the digestive tract do digestion, absorption, and elimination occur?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Oral Cavity

Major parts of the oral cavity

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Quiz students to complete labels.

What is mastication?

What is deglutition?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Oral Cavity

Major parts of the oral cavity

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Quiz students to check answers using completed labels.

What is mastication?

What is deglutition?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Oral Cavity (cont’d.)

Upper permanent teeth within the dental arch

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Quiz students to complete labels.

Discuss the following terms: labial surface, buccal surface, facial surface, lingual surface, mesial surface, distal surface, occlusal surface, and incisal edge.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Oral Cavity (cont’d.)

Upper permanent teeth within the dental arch

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Quiz students to check answers using completed labels.

Discuss the following terms: labial surface, buccal surface, facial surface, lingual surface, mesial surface, distal surface, occlusal surface, and incisal edge.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Oral Cavity (cont’d.)

Anatomy of a tooth

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Quiz students to complete labels.

What is a root canal and why is it performed?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Oral Cavity (cont’d.)

Anatomy of a tooth

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Quiz students to check answers using completed labels.

What is a root canal and why is it performed?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Oral Cavity (cont’d.)

Salivary glands

Parotid

Submandibular

Sublingual

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Quiz students to complete labels.

How many salivary glands surround the oral cavity?

How do salivaryenzymes aid digestion?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pharynx

Deglutition

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

The pharynx is the common passageway for both air and food.

What potential problems do you see with this arrangement?

How does the body address this problem?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pharynx

Deglutition

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

The pharynx is the common passageway for both air and food.

What potential problems do you see with this arrangement?

How does the body address this problem?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Esophagus/Stomach

Parts of the stomach

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

The esophagus is a 9 or 10 inch muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach.

What is a bolus?

How does the esophagus move the bolus toward the stomach?

What are the three parts of the stomach and what are their functions?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Esophagus/Stomach

Parts of the stomach

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

The esophagus is a 9 or 10 inch muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach.

What is a bolus?

How does the esophagus move the bolus toward the stomach?

What are the three parts of the stomach and what are their functions?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

The Digestive Tract

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Quiz students to complete labels.

What is the name of the pigment produced from the breakdown of hemoglobin during red blood cell destruction?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

The Digestive Tract

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Quiz students to check answers using completed labels.

What is the name of the pigment produced from the breakdown of hemoglobin during red blood cell destruction?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Small Intestine (cont’d.)

Villi in the lining of the small intestine

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

What is the function of the villi?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Large Intestine

Parts of the large intestine

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Also known as the colon.

The large intestine extends from the end of the ileum to the anus.

The large intestine receives the fluid waste from digestion and stores it until it can be released from the body.

What are the three sections of the colon and what are their functions?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Large Intestine

Parts of the large intestine

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Also known as the colon.

The large intestine extends from the end of the ileum to the anus.

The large intestine receives the fluid waste from digestion and stores it until it can be released from the body.

What are the three sections of the colon and what are their functions?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas

Parts of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Quiz students to complete labels in Figure 5-9.

What is emulsification?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Parts of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas

Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Quiz students to check answers using completed labels in Figure 5-9.

What is emulsification?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas (cont’d.)

Besides producing bile and

releasing bilirubin, the liver:

helps maintain normal blood glucose levels
manufactures blood proteins necessary for clotting
removes toxins and poisons from the blood
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

How does the liver maintain blood glucose levels?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

QUICK QUIZ:

1. What happens if bilirubin cannot leave the body and remains in the bloodstream?

gluconeogenesis

emulsification

hyperbilirubinemia

glycogenolysis

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Correct answer is C hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice) which can show yellow discoloration of the skin, whites of the eyes, and mucous membranes.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas (cont’d.)

The pancreas and its functions

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

The pancreas is both an exocrine and endocrine organ.

As an exocrine organ, it produces enzymes to digest starch (amylase), fat (lipase), and proteins (protease)

As an endocrine organ it secretes insulin.

What is the function of insulin?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Food enters through the oral cavity and exits through the anus

Food Pathway through the GI Tract

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Quiz students by having them complete the flow chart of how food progresses through the GI tract.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Food enters through the oral cavity and exits through the anus

Food Pathway through the GI Tract

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

QUICK QUIZ:

2. Which term is the first part of the large intestine?

cecum

duodenum

jejunum

pylorus

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Correct answer is A, the cecum is the first part of the large intestine. hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice) which can show yellow discoloration of the skin, whites of the eyes, and mucous membranes.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

QUICK QUIZ:

3. Which term means swallowing?

mastication

deglutition

emulsification

peristalsis

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Correct answer is B, deglutition which means swallowing.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Terminology

Examples of Combining Forms
Combining Form Meaning Terminology
bucc/o cheek buccal mucosa
celi/o belly, abdomen celiac
dent/i tooth dentibuccal
esophag/o esophagus esophageal
sialaden/o salivary gland sialadenitis
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Define combining forms for organs and the meanings of related terminology using these word parts.

Name two medical terms (not mentioned above) from the word forms listed.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Terminology (cont’d.)

Three types of anastomoses

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

-stomy, when used with two or more combining forms for organs, means the surgical creation of an opening between those organs inside the body.

Anastomosis is the surgical connection between two body parts such as vessels, ducts, or bowel segments.

In what other places might anastomoses be made?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Terminology (cont’d.)

Examples of Suffixes
Suffix Meaning Terminology
-ase enzyme lipase
-chezia defecation hematochezia
-iasis abnormal condition choledocholithiasis
-prandial meal postprandial
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Define suffixes for organs and the meanings of related terminology using these word parts.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

QUICK QUIZ:

4. Which term means inflammation of the lip?

cholecystitis

celiac

appendicitis

cheilitis

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Correct answer is D, cheilitis.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter 5
Lesson 5.2

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pathology
of the Digestive System

Examples of signs and symptoms:

anorexia – lack of appetite
ascites – abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
eructation – gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth
steatorrhea – fat in the feces; frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Discuss symptoms such as ascites, borborygmus, constipation, diarrhea, dysphagia, flatus, hematochezia, jaundice, melena, and nausea.

Based on your knowledge of the functions of the liver, how might cirrhosis cause ascites?

For more signs and symptoms, see chapter 5 8e Pathology Section.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pathologic Conditions
Oral Cavity and Teeth:

aphthous stomatitis – inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers
dental caries – tooth decay
herpetic stomatitis- inflammation of the mouth by infection with the herpesvirus.
oral leukoplakia- white plaques or patches
periodontal disease- inflammation and degeneration of the gums, teeth and surrounding bone.
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Discuss herpetic stomatitis, oral leukoplakia, and periodontal disease.

How does tooth decay progress? How is it treated?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pathologic Conditions
Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

achalasia – failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle to relax
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

What kind of diet do physicians recommend to relieve symptoms of achalasia?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pathologic Conditions
Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

esophageal varices – swollen, varicose veins at lower end of the esophagus.
gastric carcinoma – malignant tumor of the stomach.
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Discuss the following terms: gastroesophageal reflux disease, hernia, and peptic ulcer.

What is a major risk factor for gastric carcinoma? How is it treated?

LES is lower esophagus sphincter.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pathologic Conditions
Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pathologic Conditions
Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) – solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach
peptic ulcer – Open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum.
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Discuss the following terms: gastroesophageal reflux disease, hernia, and peptic ulcer.

What is a major risk factor for gastric carcinoma? How is it treated?

LES is lower esophagus sphincter.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pathologic Conditions
Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

hernia – Protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it.
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Discuss the following terms: gastroesophageal reflux disease, hernia, and peptic ulcer.

What is a major risk factor for gastric carcinoma? How is it treated?

LES is lower esophagus sphincter.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pathologic Conditions
Lower Gastrointestinal Tract
(Small and Large Intestines)

anal fistula – Abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus.
colonic polyposis – Polyps protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon.
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Discuss the following terms: gastroesophageal reflux disease, hernia, and peptic ulcer.

What is a major risk factor for gastric carcinoma? How is it treated?

LES is lower esophagus sphincter.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pathologic Conditions
Lower Gastrointestinal Tract
(Small and Large Intestines)

colorectal cancer – Adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum or both.
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Discuss the following terms: gastroesophageal reflux disease, hernia, and peptic ulcer.

What is a major risk factor for gastric carcinoma? How is it treated?

LES is lower esophagus sphincter.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pathologic Conditions
Lower Gastrointestinal Tract
(Small and Large Intestines)

Crohn disease – Chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract.
diverticulosis – Abnormal side pockets (outpouchings in the intestinal wall.
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Discuss the following terms: gastroesophageal reflux disease, hernia, and peptic ulcer.

What is a major risk factor for gastric carcinoma? How is it treated?

LES is lower esophagus sphincter.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

dysentery – Painful, inflamed intestines
hemorrhoids – Swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region
ileus – Failure of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines
Pathologic Conditions
Lower Gastrointestinal Tract
(Small and Large Intestines)

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Discuss the following terms: gastroesophageal reflux disease, hernia, and peptic ulcer.

What is a major risk factor for gastric carcinoma? How is it treated?

LES is lower esophagus sphincter.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pathologic Conditions
Lower Gastrointestinal Tract
(Small and Large Intestines)

intussusception – Telescoping of the intestines
IBS – Irritable bowel syndrome- group of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress and tension
ulcerative colitis – Chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers
volvulus – Twisting of the intestines on itself
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Discuss the following terms: gastroesophageal reflux disease, hernia, and peptic ulcer.

What is a major risk factor for gastric carcinoma? How is it treated?

LES is lower esophagus sphincter.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

cholelithiasis – gallstones
in the gallbladder

Pathologic Conditions
Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

What is biliary colic?

What type of surgery is performed to remove the gallbladder and stones?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pathologic Conditions
Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas

cirrhosis – chronic degenerative disease of the liver
pancreatitis – inflammation of the pancreas
viral hepatitis – inflammation of the liver caused by a virus
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

What causes cirrhosis of the liver?

Chapter 6
Additional Suffixes and Digestive System Terminology

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives

Define new suffixes and use them with digestive system combining forms.
List and explain laboratory tests, clinical procedures, and abbreviations common to the digestive system.
Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in their proper context, such as medical reports and records.
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter 6
Lesson 6.1

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Suffixes

-ectasis, -ectasia
-emesis
-lysis
-pepsia
-phagia
-plasty
-ptosis
-ptysis
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Which suffix(es) describe(s) a position?
Which suffix(es) describe(s) a motion?
Which suffix is used in a term that describes uncontrolled eating?
Which suffixes are surgical?
What is the difference between hematemesis and hemoptysis?
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Suffixes (cont’d.)

-rrhage, -rrhagia
-rrhaphy
-rrhea
-spasm
-stasis
-stenosis
-tresia
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Which suffixes also stand alone as a word?
Which suffix describes a motion?
Which suffix is used in a term that describes flow or discharge?
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Suffixes (cont’d.)

Suffixes that are also terms:
emesis (emetic)
lysis
spasm
stasis
stenosis
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Use two of these terms in a sentence.
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

QUICK QUIZ:

1. Which term means difficulty in swallowing?

dysphasia

dysphagia

dysplasia

polyphagia

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Correct answer is B, dysphagia. (a, dysphasia means difficulty speaking; c, dysplasia means abnormal formation or development; d,polyphagia means excessive appetite. See page 184 for more information.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

QUICK QUIZ:

2. Which term means to control or stop bleeding?

hemostasis

hematoma

hemoptysis

cholestasis

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Correct answer is A, hemostasis. See page 184 for more information.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Combining Forms and Terminology

bucc/o
cec/o
celi/o
cheil/o
chol/e
cholangi/o
cholecyst/o
choledoch/o
col/o
colon/o
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

“Col/o” is commonly combined with another form. What is it? (colorectal)
What is a cholecystectomy?
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

dent/i
duoden/o
enter/o
esophag/o
gastr/o

Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d)
gingiv/o
gloss/o
glyc/o
hepat/o
herni/o
ile/o
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Using the previous suffixes, combine forms to build terms.
Which of these terms pertains to the liver?
Which pertains to the tongue?
Which terms refer to parts of the small intestine?
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d)

jejun/o
labi/o
lingu/o
lip/o
lith/o
odont/o
or/o
palat/o
pancreat/o
proct/o
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Using the previous suffixes, combine forms to build terms.
Which combining forms are not anatomical for a specific body part? (lip/o, lith/o)
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d)

pylor/o
rect/o
sialaden/o
splen/o
steat/o
stomat/o
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

What is sialadenitis?
What is steatorrhea?
What is stomatitis? (Many students believe this is for stomach.)
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

QUICK QUIZ:

3. Which term means enlarged liver?

acromegaly

cardiomegaly

hepatomegaly

hepatitis

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Correct answer is C hepatomegaly. See page 187 for more information.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Laboratory Tests and
Clinical Procedures

Laboratory Tests
Liver function tests (LFTs): tests for enzymes and bilirubin in serum
Stool culture: tests for microorganisms in stool
Stool guaiac or Hemoccult test: detection of blood in feces
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

What is a screening test for colon cancer? How does it work?
Describe the enzymes LFTs measure.
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

QUICK QUIZ:

4. Which tests for the clear fluid that remains after blood has clotted (serum)?

stool guaiac

hemoccult

stool culture

LFT’s

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Correct answer is D LFTs—liver function tests which test for the presence of enzymes and bilirubin in serum. See page 188 for more information.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Laboratory Tests and
Clinical Procedures

Clinical Procedures
X-rays
Lower gastrointestinal series (barium enema)

Upper gastrointestinal series

Cholangiography

Computed tomography (CT scan)

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Which test uses a contrast medium?
In a cholangiography, how does the contrast material enter the body?
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Laboratory Tests and
Clinical Procedures

Clinical Procedures

Ultrasound Examination
abdominal ultrasonography

Magnetic Resonance Techniques
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Radionuclide Studies
Liver scan

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Which test is used to examine the gallbladder?
Which test creates a scan of the liver?
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Laboratory Tests and
Clinical Procedures

Other Procedures
Gastric bypass: reduces stomach size
Gastrointestinal endoscopy: visual exam of the GI tract
Liver biopsy: removal of liver tissue
Nasogastric intubation: insertion of tube through the nose into stomach
Paracentesis (abdominocentesis): puncture to remove fluid from abdomen
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Which procedure is a visual examination of the gastrointestinal tract?
Which procedure removes fluid after surgery?
Which procedure is also called gastrojejunostomy? What is this an example of? (anastomosis)
Which procedure is used to pump out stomach contents?
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

QUICK QUIZ:

5. Which procedure described as a surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen?

laparoscopy

laparotomy

abdominectomy

abdominocentesis

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Correct answer is D abdominocentesis—the suffix –centesis means to surgically puncture to remove fluid.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

ABBREVIATIONS

Alk phos: alkaline phosphatase
ALT, AST: alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase
BE: barium enema
BRBPR: bright red blood per rectum
BM: bowel movement
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Use three of these abbreviations in sentences.
Identify suffixes learned in this chapter.
What is the medical term for BRBPR? (hematochezia)
Which is an imaging test?
Which are laboratory tests?
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

CT scan: computed tomography
EGD: esophagogastroduodenoscopy
ERCP: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
GB: gallbladder
GERD: gastroesophageal reflux disease
ABBREVIATIONS

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

What does tomography mean?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

GI: gastrointestinal
HBV: hepatitis B virus
IBD: inflammatory bowel disease
LFTs: liver function tests
ABBREVIATIONS

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Which of these abbreviations are pathologies?
What is the purpose of liver function tests?
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

MRI: magnetic resonance imaging
NG tube: nasogastric tube
NPO: nothing by mouth
PEG tube: percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube
ABBREVIATIONS

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

What is the Latin term for “nothing by mouth”?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PEJ tube: percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy tube
PTHC: percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
PUD: peptic ulcer disease
ABBREVIATIONS

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

What is the difference between the PEG tube and the PEJ tube?
What are the probable locations of PUD? (stomach, duodenum)
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

SGOT, SGPT: enzyme tests of liver functions
TPN: total parenteral nutrition
T tube: tube placed in the biliary tract for drainage
ABBREVIATIONS

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Which enzymes are tested to detect liver disease?
Which term describes intravenous nutrition? What is included in the formula?
Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

REVIEW SUFFIXES

-ase _____________

-centesis _____________

-chezia _____________

-ectasia _____________

-ectasis _____________

-ectomy _____________

-emesis _____________

-emia _____________

-genesis _____________

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

-ase enzyme
-centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid
-chezia defecation; elimination of wastes
-ectasia stretching; dilation; expansion
-ectasis stretching; dilation; expansion
-ectomy removal; excision; resection
-emesis vomiting
-emia blood condition
-genesis producing; forming
REVIEW SUFFIXES

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

-graphy _____________

-iasis _____________

-lysis _____________

-megaly _____________

-orexia _____________

-pathy _____________

-pepsia _____________

-phagia _____________

REVIEW SUFFIXES

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

-graphy process of recording
-iasis abnormal condition
-lysis breakdown; separation; destruction; loosening
-megaly enlargement
-orexia appetite
-pathy disease; emotion
-pepsia digestion
-phagia eating; swallowing
REVIEW SUFFIXES

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

-prandial _____________

-plasty _____________

-ptosis _____________

-ptysis _____________

-rrhage _____________

-rrhagia _____________

-rrhaphy _____________

-rrhea _____________

REVIEW SUFFIXES

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

-prandial meal
-plasty surgical repair
-ptosis droop; sag; prolapse; fall
-ptysis spitting
-rrhage bursting forth (of blood)
-rrhagia bursting forth (of blood)
-rrhaphy suture
-rrhea flow; discharge
REVIEW SUFFIXES

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

-scopy _____________

-spasm _____________

-stasis _____________

-stenosis _____________

-stomy _____________

-tomy _____________

-tresia _____________

REVIEW SUFFIXES

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

-scopy visual examination
-spasm sudden contraction of muscles
-stasis stop; control; place
-stenosis tightening; stricture
-stomy new opening (to form a mouth)
-tomy process of cutting
-tresia opening
REVIEW SUFFIXES

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

*

*

*

*

Which suffix(es) describe(s) a position?
Which suffix(es) describe(s) a motion?
Which suffix is used in a term that describes uncontrolled eating?
Which suffixes are surgical?
What is the difference between hematemesis and hemoptysis?
*

Which suffixes also stand alone as a word?
Which suffix describes a motion?
Which suffix is used in a term that describes flow or discharge?
*

Use two of these terms in a sentence.
*

Correct answer is B, dysphagia. (a, dysphasia means difficulty speaking; c, dysplasia means abnormal formation or development; d,polyphagia means excessive appetite. See page 184 for more information.

*

Correct answer is A, hemostasis. See page 184 for more information.

*

“Col/o” is commonly combined with another form. What is it? (colorectal)
What is a cholecystectomy?
*

Using the previous suffixes, combine forms to build terms.
Which of these terms pertains to the liver?
Which pertains to the tongue?
Which terms refer to parts of the small intestine?
*

Using the previous suffixes, combine forms to build terms.
Which combining forms are not anatomical for a specific body part? (lip/o, lith/o)
*

What is sialadenitis?
What is steatorrhea?
What is stomatitis? (Many students believe this is for stomach.)
*

Correct answer is C hepatomegaly. See page 187 for more information.

*

What is a screening test for colon cancer? How does it work?
Describe the enzymes LFTs measure.
*

Correct answer is D LFTs—liver function tests which test for the presence of enzymes and bilirubin in serum. See page 188 for more information.

*

Which test uses a contrast medium?
In a cholangiography, how does the contrast material enter the body?
*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Which test is used to examine the gallbladder?
Which test creates a scan of the liver?
*

Which procedure is a visual examination of the gastrointestinal tract?
Which procedure removes fluid after surgery?
Which procedure is also called gastrojejunostomy? What is this an example of? (anastomosis)
Which procedure is used to pump out stomach contents?
*

Correct answer is D abdominocentesis—the suffix –centesis means to surgically puncture to remove fluid.

*

*

*

*

*

Use three of these abbreviations in sentences.
Identify suffixes learned in this chapter.
What is the medical term for BRBPR? (hematochezia)
Which is an imaging test?
Which are laboratory tests?
*

What does tomography mean?

*

Which of these abbreviations are pathologies?
What is the purpose of liver function tests?
*

What is the Latin term for “nothing by mouth”?

*

What is the difference between the PEG tube and the PEJ tube?
What are the probable locations of PUD? (stomach, duodenum)
*

Which enzymes are tested to detect liver disease?
Which term describes intravenous nutrition? What is included in the formula?
*

*

6003 Wk11