DNP- Translational Research And Evidence-Based Practice

This assignment is exclusively reserved for Catherine Owens

Benchmark – Drafting a Literature Review

In this assignment, you will draft the body of a literature review. You will continue to add and revise this draft literature review (Chapter 2 of your DPI Project) as you progress through the program. You may be able to use the feedback and suggestions from your instructor (on the Introduction to the Literature Review assignment in Topic 4) to expand the literature review for this assignment.

General Requirements:

Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment:

· Use the “Empirical Research Checklist” worksheet to ensure that each article you select meets all of the established criteria.

· Use the “Research Article Chart” to provide a summary review of each component of your assignment.

· Submit the completed Research Article Chart to your instructor.

· Refer to the most recent prospectus template found in the DC Network (dc.gcu.edu) for details and criteria for the Literature Review (Chapter 2).

· Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments.

· This assignment uses a rubric. Please Review the rubric prior to the beginning to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

· You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

Directions:

Part 1: Selection of 15 Articles

PICOT QUESTION: What are the Impacts of Medication Administration Errors on 3-4-Year-old Leukemia Patients

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Please give your suggested PICOT with regards to the PICOT Question

Select 15 empirical articles related to your PICOT question. Use the “Empirical Research Checklist” worksheet to ensure that each article you select meets all of the established criteria. At least one article must demonstrate a quantitative methodology.

Part 2: Research Article Chart

Using the articles acquired in Part 1, provide a summary review of each component using the “Research Article Chart” template.

Part 3: Literature Review

Prepare a Literature Review (Chapter 2) of 2,000-3,000 words for your scholarly project.

Utilizing the major concepts identified in the Topic 4 assignment, further develop each major concept and subtheme by locating 15 more empirical articles related to your project topic (30 articles total: 15 from Topic 4 assignment and 15 from Topic 6 assignment).

Use the “Research Article Chart” as a guide to analyze and synthesize (summarize) the literature into the paper you began in the Topic 4 assignment.

Based upon your review of the 15 additional research articles, expand on your summary of each major concept and your synthesis of the three identified subthemes that support each concept. At the end of each major concept, include a summary statement.

NOTE: This assignment must include

· Themes and subthmes: EXAMPLE:

Appetite Suppresant is theme which is further divided into 3 subthemes including. Safety of appetite suppresants, Role of appetite suppresant with diet and exercise and role of appetite suppresant alone.

So to clarify your paper will be organized as follows:

Appetite Suppresants: You will reserach and find some articles based on this theme and discuss :

1. Summary of the research questions posed by the studies

2. Summary of the sample populations used

3. Summary of the limitations of the studies

4. Summary of the conclusion and recommendations for further research

Safety of appetite Suppresants :

You will reserach and find some articles based on this subtheme and discuss :

1. Summary of the research questions posed by the studies

2. Summary of the sample populations used

3. Summary of the limitations of the studies

4. Summary of the conclusion and recommendations for further research

And continue with that.

Other examples of themes and subthemes:

· Lifestyle modifications as a theme divided into 3 subthemes of role of technology, educational counselling and effects of diet and exercise

· Barries of diet and exercise as a themes divided into 3 subthemes of Psychosocial barriers, cultural barriers and financial barries.

Please be very clear with your themes and Subthemes! They are the important part of literature review.

So in week 6 you continue adding 15 more articles to your themes and subthemes . So this assignment would include 30 articles total and approx 4000-6000 words without references and your charts.

In week 6 assignment the RESEARCH ARTICLE CHART NEEDS TO BE INCLUDED WITH STUDIES FROM BOTH WEEK 4 AND WEEK 6

DNP- TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH AND EVIDENCE- BASED PRACTICE 2

DNP- TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH AND EVIDENCE- BASED PRACTICE 2

DNP-Translational Research and Evidence-Based Practice

DNP-820-O501: Translational Research and Evidence-Based Practice

Grand Canyon University

September 26, 2019

DNP-Translational Research and Evidence-Based Practice

Introduction of the Identified Subtheme

The role of medical administration has advanced lately and become more demanding and time-consuming task leading to high possibility error due to the complexity of the medication administration. The fact remains that the patient relies on other people who control their life to keep them alive. It has led to the significant impact of young children suffering from leukemia when physicians administer the wrong drugs or cause an error on prescriptions.

Medication administration error is not a unique thing according to the review articles. Upon review of the identified items, most of the research concentrated on the after effect of the wrong administration while others focus on the process that leads to incorrect prescriptions leading to more sickness and problem on the children. One of the significant contents is the damage to the cognitive development of the children even after successful treatment. It shows that the moment a child is given the wrong drug other than the one to treat leukemia, it led to slow development of motor skills even after the change of the medication.

Another content identified is the ability to cope with pain due to medication error. The articles focus on the panic caused to the children under five-year old now changing the medication and prolonged time to take the actual drug. Another significant effort of error in drug administration include an increased rate of fungal and bacterial infection on young children developing a life-threatening disease. It shows that medical error on young children suffering from leukemia lacks enough blood cell, especially white blood cell to fight other the wrong drug in the blood leading to high risk of additional infection. Another impact includes difficult in developing adaptive function compared with other children of the same age group. It led to the loss information process even after recovering from leukemia.

Error in the administration of the right medication in children suffering from leukemia is highly associated with cancer. Wrong medicine administers to children mostly led to cancer since the children have no capabilities of fighting the drug on their own leading to worsening of the leukemia conditions. Given the presence of a parent in raising the children, medical administration error also leads to post-traumatic stress to the parents and guardian since they fear the children may fail to recover or lead to other mental problems.

Summary of the Research Question Posed by the Studies

Some issues include the process of prescribing, dispensing, and parental administration of these drugs to children below the age of five years receiving treatment for leukemia. To determine the kind and rate of medication error on patient leading to the various implications of the children’s healthy status. Another includes evaluating the impact of the implementation of the medical safety practice for children receiving treatment from leukemia, to investigate the motor skills difficulties in children who experience an error in medical administration. To evaluate the ability of the children who encounter an error in medical administration in developing adaptive function compare with his peers in the same group age.

Other focus on the risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia in children who experiences an error in medical administration after prolonged exposure to the wrong drug. Other focus on the risk of developing a life-threatening infection such as bacterial and fungal due to children who experience an error in medical administration. To determine the presence of post-traumatic stress on the parents and family member due to error in medical administration experience in their children receiving treatment for leukemia.

Another focus on examining memories of childhood leukemia after surviving the trauma of wrong medication administrated. Furthermore, there is the question of investigating the white matter microstructure after the children who experience an error in medical administration. Moreover, there is the problem of pain caused by the children who experience a fault in medical administration. The question focuses on the physical, emotional, and social.

Summary of the Sample Population Used

Depending on the objective of every research studies, the authors used a different sample size to achieve the goal of the aim. Most of the sample size focus on children who are below five years and either receiving treatment or have had an experience of error in medical administration during his or her treatment. Other focus on the parents and guardian responsibilities in administrating outpatient who are their children to identify some effects experienced with the children in the process.

Most of the preview articles had a sample population of between thirty and one hundred and fifty leukemic children who are receiving treatment and those who have completely healed from leukemia but have experienced an error in medical administration. It also includes the same number of family’s member who represented the children. They provided viable information on how the situation happens to reach to the point of error in medication administration, the impact of the circumstance and what they went through since most of the children might not be a position to express themselves.

Some articles included at least one hundred medical staff and physician dealing with treatment and administration of medicine to children suffering from leukemia. The sample used to understand some complication caused to the children due to children being given the wrong prescription. Other sampled the medical record that existed in a patient treated with leukemia who suffered from wrong medication to identifies some impacts that were recorded by the health care facilitates for a specific period.

Summary of the Limitation of the Studies

Depending on the research and methodology used to conduct the studies and analysis of the result, the researchers experienced different limitation. Some limitations in the article review include the reduction in the number of children who experienced an error in medical administration. Most of the researcher was unable to generalize the results on the impact of the medication administration error simple the sample size was limited. The sample size collected for the study was also based on one or two geographic areas limiting the capability of the researcher to compare the outcome of the studies in a different location that can enable to them generalize the result across the nation or the world.

Some studies were limited because the objectives had one-point design while others used longitudinal assessments, making it difficult to understand the development of the circumstance in children suffering from leukemia. According to most of the sample test, they experienced a one-time error in the medical administration, making it difficult to examine the impact of the medication administration errors on children receiving treatment from leukemia.

Other studies experienced a limitation in research due to the short-term observation period between the moment the children administered with the wrong drug and the physician or parents realize the mistakes. There was little time to have a definite impact related to medication error and adverse drug events limiting the collection of validating and reliable evidence about the real effects of the medication error. This led to biases and assumptions of the result provided affecting the quality of the research conduct.

Other infection that children may be suffering from beside leukemia served as a limitation due to lack of sources of the problems. Inability to differentiate the causes that lead to various impact after medication error due to children suffering from other infection lead to bias related to adverse drug events.

In some studies, the sample size was modified due to their ability to effectively contribute in the process due to their age and parents’ condition of involving their children in studies preventing detection of small differences in the impact seen due to medication error. The difference between patient sample size and the period speed since experiencing the medication error prevented the researcher from collecting viable information about the impact of medication error.

Another major limitation experienced by most of the researcher in the study of the impact of medication error on young children receiving treatment for leukemia is the lack of compliance by the sample population selected. The nature and behavior of young children below five years showed little or no compliance with the researcher in providing the right information. The parent also expresses no compliance with the studies due to the fear of exposing their children healthy statue and due to the phycological problems passed through due to childhood illness or effect of medication error. Medical staff and doctors show less compliance with studies as they fear to exposure of their negligence in administrating drug to small children and other patients. There was also no compliance with the administration to provide the record of cases reported in medication error with fear of exposing their hospital negligence and irregularities of administration.

Most of the studies used pre- and post-experimental methods to analyze the impact of a medication error that was based under various assumption limiting the effectiveness of the study. For example, most study focus on the medical record of the children before medication error and after medication error that can handle vary due to other infection and circumstance, resulting in different results. Other expected compliance of the parent to administer the drug to the children to evaluate the impact which cannot be measured if the fallowed the instruction given the whole period of the study.

Summary of the Research Methodologies

Most of the studies used quasi-experimental research involving both the pre- and post-intervention with a control sample. Others include cross-sectional study, retrospective study, comparative study, and qualitative study. Random or straightforward sampling method was used to select the sample population to cover in the primary studies. The data was collected through the administered questionnaire, semi-structured interview, and review of previous records. The collected information was analyzed using statistical analysis tools, thematic analysis magnitude of error of the outcome.

Summary of the Results

Depending on the different research objectives and purpose of the studies, most of the articles review show a positive effect in establishing the impact of medication error administrated to children suffering from leukemia. Among the result shows that there are negative effects of the medication error on the children, with the problems such as severe pain, brain development problem, slow development in motor skills, slow in developing adaptive functions, and cancer. In addition, there were negative financial impacts on the parents as well as negative emotional effects, causing post-traumatic stress to immediate families.

Summary of the Conclusion and Recommendations for Further Research

According to the result provide, medication administration error affect almost one-fourth of the children under the age of five years receiving treatment for leukemia. The studies identify the primary effect of medication error as the prolonged time to heal from leukemia, and it also led to the development of cancer since most of the children are in early stages of leukemia cancer in children. Failure to administer the right drug improve the risk of the child to be infected with other diseases and infection due to their low immune system to fight the wrong medication in their system. The studies found out that children increase the risk of bacterial and fungal infection.

The articles review also conclude that medication error to children result in severe pain as the child tries to fight the drugs in the body. Studies also find out that prolonged administration of the wrong drug affects the growth and development of the children. Most of the children experimented show slow development of motor skill and adaptive function compared to other children who suffered from leukemia but administered with the right medication.

Most of the studies recommend for studies at the effective intervention that will reduce the impact of medication error among the children. Further research needs to be conducted using an ample sample and multi-method approaches that will help in generalizing the result of the impact of the medication error in the world. A relevant study needs to conduct that focuses on the significant effect of medication administration error on the healthy condition of children suffering from leukemia. Another review recommends further research on the influence of medication error on parents and immediate family to understand the whole consequence. Other recommends conducting the same research using a different sample population and different methodologies to compare the result. More research needs to perform to identify the leading cause of medication error to establish a solution to the problem and reduce the impact felt by young children.

References

Darling, S. J., De Luca, C., Anderson, V., McCarthy, M., Hearps, S., & Seal, M. L. (2018). White matter microstructure and information processing at the completion of chemotherapy-only treatment for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Developmental neuropsychology, 43(5), 385-402.

Geng, C., Moteabbed, M., Xie, Y., Schuemann, J., Yock, T., & Paganetti, H. (2015). Assessing the radiation-induced second cancer risk in proton therapy for pediatric brain tumors: the impact of employing a patient-specific aperture in pencil beam scanning. Physics in Medicine & Biology, 61(1), 12.

Hallböök, H., Gustafsson, G., Smedmyr, B., Söderhäll, S., Heyman, M., & Swedish Adult Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Group and the Swedish Childhood Leukemia Group. (2016). Treatment outcome in young adults and children> 10 years of age with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Sweden: a comparison between a pediatric protocol and an adult protocol. Cancer, 107(7), 1551-1561.

Mulatsih, S., & Iwan Dwiprahasto, S. (2018). Implementation of medication safety practice in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP, 19(5), 1251.

Murphy, B. R., Roth, M., Kolb, E. A., Alonzo, T., Gerbing, R., & Wells, R. J. (2019). Development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia following treatment for acute myeloid leukemia in children with Down syndrome: A case report and retrospective review of Children’s Oncology Group acute myeloid leukemia trials. Pediatric blood & cancer, e27700.

Oberoi, S., Trehan, A., & Marwaha, R. K. (2014). Medication errors on oral chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a developing country. Pediatric blood & cancer, 61(12), 2218-2222.

Saxena, A., Jain, G., & Gupta, R. (2018). Comment on: Effectiveness of antibacterial prophylaxis during induction chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatric blood & cancer, 65(8), e27044.

Sulis, M. L., Blonquist, T. M., Stevenson, K. E., Hunt, S. K., Kay‐Green, S., Athale, U. H., … & Leclerc, J. M. (2018). Effectiveness of antibacterial prophylaxis during induction chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatric blood & cancer, 65(5), e26952.

Taverna, L., Tremolada, M., Bonichini, S., Basso, G., & Pillon, M. (2016). Adaptive functioning of preschooler children with leukemia post 1 year of therapies compared with sane peers. Br. J. Educ. Soc. Behav. Sci, 18, 1-15.

Taverna, L., Tremolada, M., Bonichini, S., Tosetto, B., Basso, G., Messina, C., & Pillon, M. (2017). Motor skill delays in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy as an important risk factor. PloS one, 12(10), e0186787.

Taylor, J. A., Winter, L., Geyer, L. J., & Hawkins, D. S. (2016). Oral outpatient chemotherapy medication errors in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer, 107(6), 1400-1406.

Tremolada, M., Bonichini, S., Basso, G., & Pillon, M. (2015). Coping with pain in children with leukemia. International Journal of Cancer Research and Prevention, 8(4), 451.

Tremolada, M., Bonichini, S., Basso, G., & Pillon, M. (2016). Post-traumatic stress in parents of children with leukemia: Methodological and clinical considerations. Comprehensive Guide to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders, 579-597.

Wang, Y., Liu, Q., Yu, J. N., Wang, H. X., Gao, L. L., Dai, Y. L., … & Mu, G. X. (2017). Perceptions of parents and paediatricians on pain induced by bone marrow aspiration and lumbar puncture among children with acute leukaemia: a qualitative study in China. BMJ open, 7(9), e015727.

Zannini, L., Cattaneo, C., Jankovic, M., & Masera, G. (2014). Surviving childhood Leukemia in a Latin culture: An explorative study based on young adults’ written narratives. Journal of psychosocial oncology, 32(5), 576-601.

Practice Hours Completion Statement DNP-820

I, (Bola Odusola-Stephen), verify that I have completed (10) clock hours in association with the goals and objectives for this assignment. I have also tracked said practice hours in the Typhon Student Tracking System for verification purposes and will be sure that all approvals are in place from my faculty and practice mentor.

Safety Risks