Picot Assignment: Evaluation Of Literature

Literature Evaluation Table

Learner Name:


For patients visiting hospital emergency department (P) would the introduction of Evidenced-based practice service nursing bundle (I) compared to Team-based care (C) result in improve patient satisfaction ratings (O) within a six months’ time frame (T)?

Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), and Permalink or Working Link to Access Article

Article Title and Year Published

Research Questions/ Hypothesis, and Purpose/Aim of Study

Design (Quantitative, Qualitative, or other)


Methods: Intervention/ Instruments

Analysis/Data Collection

Outcomes/Key Findings


Explanation of How the Article Supports Your Proposed EBP Practice Project Proposal

Wand, T., Collett, G., Cutten, A., Stack, A., Dinh, M., Bein, K., Green, T., Berendsen Russell, S., Edwards, J. & White, K.

Evaluating an emergency department-based mental health liaison nurse service: A multi-site translational research project (2021).

Translate and evaluate a model of mental health liaison nursing (MHLN) care that was embedded within emergency department.

Mixed methods were used to carry out the research. Data collection included (1) incorporated descriptive data, (2) realistic evaluation, and (3) surveys.

A total of 3843 patients were seen across the three hospitals in New South Wales over the 12-month evaluation period (site A1358, site B 1339, site C 1146).

Realistic evaluation (RE).

Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data, with Wilcoxon rank sum tests used to compare median wait times and ED length of stay.

The main outcomes of interest were MHLN wait times (recorded time of mental health consultation) and ED length of stay (time from ED arrival to actual ED departure time), documented within ED patient tracking systems can have a negative outcome on patient care outcomes.

This multi-site study has demonstrated that a metropolitan model of ED-based MHLN care can be transferred to the rural and regional context, improving access to mental health services in ED and is associated with high levels of overall patient and staff satisfaction.

The researcher sort to translate and evaluate a model of mental health liaison nursing (MHLN) care that was embedded within emergency department, how it improved patients wait time, patient care outcomes and patient satisfaction ratings.

Messina, G., Vencia, F., Mecheroni, S., Dionisi, S., Baragatti, L., & Nante, N.

Factors affecting patient satisfaction with emergency department care: An Italian rural hospital (2015).

To identify areas of emergency nursing activity associated with minor or major patient satisfaction.

Quantitative design was used to analyze the data.

Convenience sampling was used to select 259 patients, namely patients presenting at the emergency unit in the study period

A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural hospital of Orbetello, Tuscany (Italy)

Data were collected using the Consumer Emergency Care Satisfaction Scale (CECSS), a validated tool based on the literature on patient satisfaction with emergency department.

Two characteristics significantly influenced overall satisfaction: “receiving continuous information from personnel about delay” had a positive effect while “waiting time for examination” had a negative effect. Improvements must be related to educational aspects, such as explaining to patients the color waiting list, and communication towards patients, such as informing them about emergences that cause may cause the long wait.   The researcher sot to investigate how nursing activities in the ED negatively affect patient care outcomes and patient satisfaction ratings.

Sonis, J. D., Aaronson, E. L., Lee, R. Y., Philpotts, L. L., & White, B. A.

Emergency department patient experience: A systematic review of the literature (2018). To identify specific factors most commonly identified as influencing ED patient experience.

Qualitative- using ED patient experience.

107 publications were included for data extraction. A literature search was performed, and articles were included if published in peer-reviewed journals, primarily focused on ED patient experience

a systematic review of existing literature to identify specific factors most commonly identified as influencing ED patient experience.

The most commonly identified themes included staff-patient communication, ED wait times, and staff empathy and compassion.

The most commonly identified problem of ED patient experience include communication, wait times, and staff empathy; however, existing literature is limited. The researcher sort to identify issues that have a negative effect on patient experience in the emergency department of healthcare facilities.

Abass, G., Asery, A., Al Badr, A., Maghlouth, A., AlOtaiby, S., & Heena, H.

Patient satisfaction with the emergency department services at an academic teaching hospital.


Exploring the patient satisfaction concerning emergency care department in health services in an academic institution.

Quantitative design

Cross-sectional, sample study

Arab-speaking patients who have attended the emergency department.  Nine item surveys conducted via telephone

A fifteen-minute survey where the data was analyzed using top box scoring methodology to make reports.

The findings have shown that out of the 713,200 patients who responded to the survey. The overall satisfaction range in the Emergency department was 43 percent. The survey researchers recommended that a detailed analysis on emergency services in other hospitals

The article helps by providing an incite of collecting and analyzing data from patients on the satisfaction of emergency services.

Mollaoğlu, M., & Çelik, P.

Evaluation of emergency department nursing services and patient satisfaction of services (2016).

To identify nursing services and assess patient satisfaction in patients who present to the emergency department.

Descriptive study.

84 patients who presented to the university emergency department were included in the study.

A descriptive method was used to conduct the study.

The study data were collected by the Patient Information Form and the Satisfaction Level Form.

The most common practices performed by nurses in the emergency department were physical nursing services. Patient satisfaction was mostly associated with the availability of nurses when they were needed.

Results suggest that in addition to the physical care, patients should also receive education and psychosocial care in the emergency department.    The researcher looked at how nursing care delivery affects patient satisfaction ratings in the emergency department.

Rehman, S. A., & Ali, P. A.

A review of factors affecting patient satisfaction with nurse led triage in emergency departments (2016).

To determine the factors that affect patient satisfaction with nurse-led-triage in emergency departments.

A systematic review was conducted using the Cochrane Collaboration systematic review method

Eighteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed

MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Library and Google Scholar were searched

Pre-constructed data extraction template was use.

Detailed and careful review of the titles and abstracts of identified papers resulted in the selection

Waiting time appears to be of the significant factor that affects patient satisfaction with overall care provided in ED and with nurse-led-triage services.

There is scope for the further development of nurse-led-triage services. As demographic and cultural factors may affect patients’ perceptions and expectations of the triage service by nurses.

Factors which affect patient’s perception of wait time in the emergency department was investigated by the researcher.

Brosinski, C., & Riddell

Incorporating hourly rounding to increase emergency department patient satisfaction: A quality improvement approach (2020).

Whether patient satisfaction is an important factor that influences the perceived quality of care delivered.

Descriptive and quantitative.

A 49-bed emergency department located in a Mid-Atlantic military academic hospital.

Patient satisfaction data were collected through the Interactive Customer Evaluation system. Three variables were measured using 5-point Likert scale

Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data collected.

Patient satisfaction increased from 52% to 73%; perception of staff attitude increased from 70% to 84%; and whether the health care team answered all patient questions/concerns increased from 63% to 81%.

Patient satisfaction is an important aspect of care that is delivered in the ED setting. It is crucial for the nursing staff to take an active role in influencing patient satisfaction, which can be accomplished by providing frequent updates to the patients.

To achieve a change in culture with hourly rounding compliance, nurse managers must consistently monitor staff compliance with hourly rounding.

Patient satisfaction ratings is determined by the wait time and level of care received in the Ed.

Abidova, A., da Silva, P. A., & Moreira, S.

Predictors of patient satisfaction and the perceived quality of healthcare in an emergency department in Portugal (2020).

To identify the key predictors of patient satisfaction and perceived quality of healthcare in the framework of an emergency department (ED). A retrospective Quantitative study was conducted.     Sample size included 382 patients from a public hospital in Lisbon, Portugal

Retrospective study of patients seen at an ED between January -December 2016.

Data for this research, using a questionnaire, was collected by mail or e-mail according to the respondent’s preference.      The main predictors of satisfaction and perceived quality of healthcare were overall satisfaction with doctors and meeting expectations.         Meeting the expectations of our patients play the most important role in terms of satisfaction               Patient satisfaction ratings will increase if they are satisfied with the healthcare services received.

Wang, H., Kline, J. A., Jackson, B. E., Robinson, R. D., Sullivan, M., Holmes, M., Watson, K. A., Cowden, C. D., Phillips, J. L., Schrader, C. D., Leuck, J., & Zenarosa, N. R.

The role of patient perception of crowding in the determination of real-time patient satisfaction at Emergency Department (2017).

To evaluate the associations between real-time overall patient satisfaction and Emergency Department (ED) crowding as determined by patient perception and crowding estimation tool score in a high-volume ED.

Prospective observational study (qualitative).

Patients 1345 in a tertiary acute hospital ED and a Level 1 trauma center.

Crowding status was measured by two crowding tools (1) National Emergency Department Overcrowding Scale (NEDOCS) and severely Overcrowded-Not overcrowded Estimation Tool (SONET), and patient perception of crowding surveys administered at discharge.

Descriptive statistics are presented as frequencies and percentages for categorical

variables and median and interquartile ranges (IQRs) for continuous variables.     ED crowding, regardless of determination method (e.g. patient perceptions, NEDOCS or SONET), was associated with patient satisfaction.

Future studies would benefit by focusing on investigation of the (i) association between dynamic changes in ED crowding levels, interventions to minimize ED overcrowding and overall patient satisfaction and (ii) direction of crowding change and its influence on patient perception of ED crowding with and/or without interventions and overall patient satisfaction.

The study looked at factors which affected patient’s perception of wait time in the emergency department

Skaggs, M., Daniels, J. F., Hodge, A. J., & DeCamp, V. L.

Using the evidence-based practice Service Nursing bundle to increase patient satisfaction. (2018).

The paper is a review of evidence-based practice on patient satisfaction. Qualitative design   The emergency unit reports 1104 audits Comparing the professional research consultant patient rating on satisfaction A survey on patient satisfaction rating was conducted at the AIDET. In addition, hourly rounding and bedside shift reports were used to test results in an implementation bundle.

The observational audits indicated that the implementation bundle helped in improving the quality of patient care, with 11.8 percent

The authors suggest that further study can be conducted on the implementation of auditing tools to improve patient ratings The article illustrates how to use auditing tools to improve the emergency department.