Microbiology

QUESTION 1

1. Compare aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration and fermentation. How are the processes similar? How are they different? How do these processes determine which environment the organism can live in? [Key terms to use in answer: electron transport chain, cytochrome, ATP, glucose, glycolysis, obligate aerobe, facultative anaerobe, microaerophile, obligate anaerobe, oxidase, catalase, peroxidase, CO 2 , organic acids and alcohols, alternative substrates (other than glucose)]

3 points

QUESTION 2

1. Using your knowledge of DNA recombination events to complete the following:

1. Propose two ways in which antibiotic resistance may develop in a bacterium

2. Describe how bacterial cells acquire the ability to produce toxins

(Use the following terminology in your answer: recombination, DNA, horizontal gene transfer, conjugation, transformation, transduction, pilus, F factor, transposable elements, transposons, pathogenicity islands)

3 points

QUESTION 3

1. Discuss how a pathogen causes an infection. Include definitions for primary pathogen, opportunistic pathogen, infection, disease (caused by a living organism), and various stages of pathogenesis. You can choose a specific organism to describe (like Orthomyxovirus and Influenza) or discuss a generalized infection.

3 points

QUESTION 4

1. Describe each type of infection in the following list and include the mode of transmission in each scenario. Use terms such as primary, secondary, healthcare-associated, STI, mixed, latent, toxemia, chronic, zoonotic, asymptomatic, local, and systemic to describe the types of infections (more than one term may apply, some may not apply to these conditions)

1) The development of Pneumocystisis pneumonia in an AIDS patient 2) Salmonellosis 3) Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome infection acquired while vacationing in a log cabin

3 points

Case Study: End of Life Decisions