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Class: HTL 362V What Is Statistics and Why It Is Important to Health



1-What are the frequency and percentage of the COPD patients in the severe airflow limitation group who are employed in the Eckerblad et al. (2014) study?

Answer: The frequency of the COPD is 7

The percentage of the COPD is 14

2-What percentage of the total sample is retired? What percentage of the total sample is on sick leave?

Answer: 61% of the total sample is retired.

15% of the total sample is on sick leave.

3- What is the total sample size of this study? What is the frequency and percentage of the total sample were still employed? Show your calculations and round your answer to the nearest whole percent.

Answer: The total sample size is 91


Percentage: 14/91 = 0.1538 X 100 = 15%

4- What is the total percentage of the sample with a smoking history – either still smoking or former smoker? Is the smoking history for study participants clinically important? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Answer: Total percentage of still smoker is:25%

Total percentage of Former Smoker is: 63%

Total: 63+25 = 88/91 x100 = 97%

Yes, It is important due to lung cancer.

5- What are pack years of smoking? Is there a significant difference between the moderate and severe airflow limitation group regarding pack years of smoking? Provide rationale for your answer.

Answer: The pack years of smoking is the amount of packs that are smoked in a specific number of years, those are the numbers that show how much the person has smoked over their lifetime. A pack a year is equal to smoking a pack of cigarettes per day for one year. There is no difference between moderate and severe groups regarding the pack year of smoking because the p value is 0.177 (less than 5%) due to Moderate 29.1 and Severe 34.

6-What were the four most common psychological symptoms reported by this sample of patients with COPD? What percentage of these subjects experienced these symptoms? Was there a significant difference between the moderate and severe airflow limitation groups for psychological symptoms?

Answer: The four most common psychological symptoms were:

· Feeling Irritable 28%

· Worrying 33%

· Feeling Sad 22%

· Difficulty of Sleeping 52%

· ( There were not significant difference between groups.)

7-What frequency and percentage of the total sample used short-acting Beta 2 agonist? Show your calculations and round to the nearest whole percent.

Answer: Frequency Moderate 13. Severe 32

32+13=45/91=0.494 x 100 = 49%

8- Is there a significant difference between moderate and severe airflow limitation groups regarding the use of short-acting Beta 2 agonist? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Answer: Yes because in Moderate, 31% is used in medication and in Severe, 65% is used in medication which makes a total difference of 34%.

9- Was the percentage of COPD patients with moderate and severe airflow limitation using short-acting Beta 2

agonist what you expected? Provide rationale with documentation for your answer.

Answer: Yes, In the treatment of COPD, Beta 2 agonist is the first-line therapy. It is used both in long and short-term relief of symptoms. It is used when symptoms such as wheezing, SOB, and coughing appear. Beta 2 agonist work by stimulating beta 2 receptors in the muscles that line in airways, which causes them to relax and allows the airway to dilate.

10- Are these findings ready for use in practice? Provide rationale.

Answer: Yes. I think all this information provided a broad insight on COPD and is very helpful for people and nurses that suffer this condition which is very common in today’s population


Beta2-Agonists for Chronic Obstructive Pulmunary Disease (COPD). (2017). Retrieved from


1-The number of nursing students enrolled in a particular nursing program between the years of 2010 and 2016,

respectively, were 563, 593, 606, 520, 563, 610, and 577. Determine the mean(x), median (MD), and mode of the number of the nursing students enrolled in this program. Show calculations.

Answer: Mean: 563 + 593 + 606 + 520 + 563 + 610 + 577 = 403/7 = 576

Median: 577

Mode: 563

2- What is the mode for the variable inpatient complications in Table 2 of the Winkler et al. (2014) study? What percentage of the study participants had complication?

Answer: Inpatient Complication in Table 2: AMI post admission for patients admitted in UA.

The percentage is 8%.

3- Does the distribution of inpatient complications have a single mode, or is this distribution bimodal or multimodal? Provide rationale.

Answer: Single Mode because, no other complication has the same number.

4- As reported in Table 1, what are the three most common cardiovascular medical history even in the study, and why is it clinically important to know the frequency of these event?

Answer: Jaw, neck, arm, or back pain: Frequency 152 (55%)

SOB: Frequency 189 (68%)

Chest Pain: Frequency 255 (92%)

The nurses and health care providers should closely follow the patients with these signs and

Symptoms, therefore it is important to know the frequency and apply the right intervention on time.

5- What are the mean and median lengths of stays (LOS) for the study participants?

Answer: Median: 4 days.

Mean: 5.37 days.

6- Are the mean and median for LOS similar or different? What might this indicate about the distribution of the sample? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Answer: The mean and median is very close. This indicates the distribution of the sample was normal.

7- Examine the study results and determine the mode for arrhythmias experienced by the participants. What was the

Second most common arrhythmia in this sample?

Answer: The most frequent arrhythmia experiences in participants were PVCs arrhythmia and non-sustained Ventricular tachycardia.

8- What the most common arrhythmia in Question 7 related to LOS? Was the result statistically significant? Provide rationale.

Answer: Yes, the result is significant because the most common arrhythmia was PVCs had an a increase length of stay(if patient had more than 50 PVCs an hour, independently predicted an increase LOS, with statistically significant results.

9- What study variables were independently of the 50 premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) per hour in the study?

Answer: Around 22% of the patients, aged greater than 65 years old.

10- In Table 1, what race is the mode for this sample? Should these study findings be generalized to American Indian

with ACS? Provide a rationale four your answer.

Answer: The mode of race is the white population having 51% while the American Indians have only 8% in the study.


1- What were the name and type of measurement method used to measure Caring Practices in the Roch, Dubois, and Clarke (2014) study?

Answer: The name is Caring Nurse-Patient Interaction short scale. It is a quantitative measure with five point likert scale.

2- The data collected with the scale identified in Question 1 were at what level measurement? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Answer: The level of measurement in Question 1 was an interval level measurement and it involved quantitative research and carrying out survey.

3- What were the subscales included in the CNPISS used to measure RNs’ perceptions of their Caring Practices?

Do these subscales seem relevant? Document your answer.

Answer: The subscales included are: Comforting Care, Caring Care, and Relational Care. These Scales are relevant to break down the types of care given.

4- Which subscale for Caring Practices had the lowest mean? What does this result indicate?

Answer: The subscale with lowest mean is Relational Care. It is indicating that it is the least performed care by nurses surveyed.

5- What were the dispersion results for the Rational Care subscale of the Caring Practices in the Table 2? What do these results indicate?

Answer: The standard deviation is 1.01 with the range being 1.00-5.00. This means that there is a wide range of answers, the data is between 1.9-3.9 from the mean. The larger range indicates that the participants have different points of view on how often they participate in relational care.

6- Which subscale of Caring Practices has the lowest dispersion or variation of scores? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Answer: The lowest dispersion is Clinical Care due to responses ranging from 2.44-5.00 with the standard of deviation being 0.57. This means that the responses were all close to the mean of 4.02.

7- Which subscale of Caring Practices had the highest mean? What do these results indicate?

Answer: The highest mean was Comforting Care. This means the participants feel they provide this care more than the other types of care.

8- Compare the Overall rating for Organizational Climate with the Overall rating of Caring Practices. What do these results indicate?

Answer: The Overall Organizational Climate is moderately positive (3.13) and the Overall Caring Practices were significantly more negative (3.62).

9- The response rate for the survey in this study was 45%. Is this a study strenght or limitation? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Answer: The study is strength. The results indicated that nurses generally assessed the organizational climate as moderately positive.

10- What conclusions did the researchers make regarding the caring practices of the nurses in this study? How might these results affect your practice?

Answer: Researches concluded that care practices are regularly performed and the mean score was above 2.5 on the five-point scale. This results might affect my practice in trying to increase my relational care with patients.

The Assignment (6-Minute PowerPoint Presentation):Change Implementation And Management Plan

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