VARK Analysis Paper

Learning styles represent the different approaches to learning based on preferences, weaknesses, and strengths. For learners to best achieve the desired educational outcome, learning styles must be considered when creating a plan. Complete “The VARK Questionnaire,” located on the VARK website, and then complete the following:

Click “OK” to receive your questionnaire scores.
Once you have determined your preferred learning style, review the corresponding link to view your learning preference.
Review the other learning styles: visual, aural, read/write, kinesthetic, and multimodal (listed on the VARK Questionnaire Results page).
Compare your current preferred learning strategies to the identified strategies for your preferred learning style.
Examine how awareness of learning styles has influenced your perceptions of teaching and learning.
In a paper (750‐1,000 words), summarize your analysis of this exercise and discuss the overall value of learning styles. Include the following:

Provide a summary of your learning style according the VARK questionnaire.
Describe your preferred learning strategies. Compare your current preferred learning strategies to the identified strategies for your preferred learning style.
Describe how individual learning styles affect the degree to which a learner can understand or perform educational activities. Discuss the importance of an educator identifying individual learning styles and preferences when working with learners.
Discuss why understanding the learning styles of individuals participating in health promotion is important to achieving the desired outcome. How do learning styles ultimately affect the possibility for a behavioral change? How would different learning styles be accommodated in health promotion?
Cite to at least three peer‐reviewed or scholarly sources to complete this assignment. Sources should be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

Your VARK Results
Your scores were:

· Visual 5

· Aural 10

· Read/Write 7

· Kinesthetic 14

Your learning preference: Multimodal (VARK)

People with your preference like: different formats, graphs, diagrams, maps, interesting layouts, space, listening, discussing, talking, questioning, notes, handouts, print, text, practical exercises, experiences, examples, case studies, trial and error, things that are real, …

But you tend to use Aural, Read/write and Kinesthetic strategies.

To better match the strategies you use to your learning preference, you should:

· Try more Visual strategies.

Kinesthetic Strategies
Key words:
senses, practical exercises, experiences, examples, case studies, trial and error.

This preference uses your experiences and the things that are real even when they are shown as images and on screens.

People with a Kinesthetic preference prefer:
· autobiographies and documentaries

· applications before theories

· demonstrations followed by applying what they have learned

· talking about real things in their life.

· their own experiences over the experiences of others

· doing things with others; action; making things happen

· physicality

· practical problems and problem solving techniques

· finishing tasks

· outcomes that can be measured

· being part of a team

· being valued for their experiences

· people who can apply their ideas

· people who are concrete, relevant, down-to-earth

To take in information:
· use all your senses – sight, touch, taste, smell, hearing…

· use hands-on approaches

· read case studies

· watch videos, especially those that show real things

· look at exhibits, samples, photographs….

· attend laboratory and practical sessions

· use surveys, field trips and interviews

· use recipes and solutions to problems

· take notice of real-life examples and personal stories

· look for examples of principles

· learn by trial and error

· look for opportunities to apply what you have learned

· use actions to help your understanding

To present information to others:
· Focus on the “real” things that happened; reality is what is important.

· Use plenty of examples when you talk, discuss, present or write.

· Use your previous experience as the basis for any decision-making.

· Use case studies and applications to help with difficult principles and abstract concepts.

· Get others to focus on the detail. Use detail to argue against principles or abstract ideas.

· Stay in this world and in this time. Now is where you want to be.

· Be aware that others may NOT have a Kinesthetic preference like you, so respect their differences. Find the preferences of those you are presenting to, and learn to be multimodal and deliver something in their preferred modes.

In education:
· Your notes may be poor because the topics were not “concrete” or “relevant“. So expand them into a learnable package. Then reduce them from three pages down to one page.

· Put plenty of examples into your notes and answers.

· Remember the “real” things that happened. Search for the reality and the applications of ideas.

· Go back to the laboratory or your laboratory manual or your practical notes. Recall the experiments and field visits where you learned.

· Find pictures and photographs that illustrate an abstract idea, theory or principle.

· Talk about your notes with another person with a Kinesthetic preference.

· Use previous exam, assessment and test papers.

· Role-play the test situation in your own study room.

· You want to experience the exam so that you can understand it; recall previous examinations, especially those were you did well.

In the workplace:
· Use role-plays to get your ideas across.

· Use simulation techniques.

· Recall past examples and performances.

· Recall the exact things that happened; the experiment, the journey, the incident, the client, the customer and the facts.

· Emphasize: Practice, Practice, Practice.

· Review videos and demonstrations of practical action.

· Base your ideas on your experience and your examples and applications.

· Demonstrate the “How“

· Use trial and error as a way to show others.

Your Quote: “The very first priority is to apply it, practice it and make it work.”

Your Style: You want more experiences so you can understand things. The ideas on this page are only valuable if they sound practical, real and relevant to you. You need to do things to understand.

Your Leadership: is based on action, personal examples and role modelling. “Follow me and I will show you what we can achieve.”

Feedback: is based on face-to-face discussions with examples of projects showing success or failure.

Visual Strategies
Key words:
different formats, space, graphs, charts, diagrams, maps, interesting layouts and plans.

This preference uses symbolism and different formats, fonts and colors to emphasise important points. It does not include video and pictures that show real images and it is not Visual merely because it is shown on a screen.

People with a Visual preference prefer:
· to draw things

· working with plans, maps and diagrams

· working with logos, branding and design

· tasks where they are able to detect patterns

· written information that is filled with graphs, charts and diagrams

· the layout on a page to be different, striking or unusual; for them it is often more important than the content

· to use color and shape; they appreciate different and interesting layouts, fashion, design, and the clever use of color and space.

· things that make good use of color and shape, like food, decorations, festivals and spectacular and original displays

· presenters use gestures and picturesque language

To take in information:
· use pictures, videos, posters, slides where the emphasis is on the design (not the sound or the words or the content)

· use books with diagrams and pictures

· use maps and free-drawn plans

· use flowcharts, decision trees, family trees, organizational charts, graphs.

· turn tables of figures into graphs.

· read the words and convert them into your own-designed diagrams

· use different fonts, UPPER and lowercase letters, underlining, different colours, and highlighting.

· use symbols @, #, & and white space; the extra spaces between text and diagrams.

· try different spatial arrangements on the page.

To present information to others:
· Construct images in different ways. Try spatial arrangements.

· Draw things to show your ideas, using diagrams, symbols and graphs.

· Make complex processes and lists into flowcharts.

· Make each page look different.


· Be aware that others may NOT have a Visual preference like you. Respect their differences. Find the preferences of those you are presenting to, and learn to be multimodal and deliver something in their preferred modes.

In education:
· Use all of the techniques above.

· Convert your “notes” into a learnable package by reducing each three pages down to one page. Give your brain some help!

· Reconstruct any images in different ways to suit your way… try different spatial arrangements.

· Redraw your learnable pages from memory. Replace some key words with symbols or drawings.

· Look at your pages and search for patterns.

· Practice turning your visuals back into words.

In the workplace:
· Draw things to show your ideas. Draw things freehand and watch the reactions of others.

· Make complex processes and lists into flowcharts

· Create your own symbols to simplify things.

· Make each page of your reports look different.

· Spend time on the design of your presentations and less on the content.

Your Quote: “Good design is always important.”

Your Style: You are holistic. You want the whole picture; the big picture first. And you are probably going to draw or plan something.

Your Leadership: is based on a chart or plan or diagram of the overall process and your goals. “The overall goal for us is … outcomes and results … following this plan.”

Feedback: is based on graphs of targets and goals.

Aural Strategies
Key words:
listening, discussing, talking, questioning, recalling

This preference is for information that is spoken or heard. Making statements and using questions are an important for those with this preference.

People with an Aural preference prefer:
· to talk things over, even if you have not got things sorted out

· “Holding the floor” – but remember your talk often goes in different directions and may lack structure.

· to explain things by talking

· putting forward a case – for and against

· to learn from the ideas of others and from what they say about your ideas

· debates and arguments and “deep” discussions

· to listen to those who know a lot and who have authority

· inserting witty comments

· using different voices to emphasize things

· putting forward your own point of view

To take in information:
· Join or set up discussion groups. Discuss topics with others. Argue your case.

· Comment on ideas as soon as you get an opportunity. Repeat information to others and use your voice to show your emphases.

· Explain new ideas to other people. Check out their ideas with yours.

· Listen to your own self-talk, have conversations with yourself.

· Use voice recorders, listen to podcasts

· Shift any pictures and graphs into talk and chat.

· Pay attention when others are speaking. You sometimes pretend to listen while preparing your response.

To present information to others:
· Listen and talk, but also learn the best times to do each of these.

· Find others who like to listen and talk.

· Join online chat and discussion groups and make your contributions; use email, blogs and Twitter to chat with others.

· Use your mobile phone for conversations.

· Realize that others can sometimes improve on what you say.

· Be aware that others may NOT have an Aural preference like you, so respect their differences. Find out the preferences of those you are presenting to, and learn to be multimodal and deliver something in their preferred modes.

In Education:
· Convert your notes into a learnable package by reducing them into memorable ways for you to recall (three pages down to one page).

· Your notes may be poor because you prefer to listen rather than take notes. You will need to expand your notes by talking with others and collecting notes from other sources. Leave spaces in your notes for later recall and ‘filling’.

· Read your summarized notes aloud.

· Explain your notes to another person with an Aural preference; ask others to “hear” your understanding of a topic.

· Record your summarized notes and listen to them.

· Attend classes, discussions and tutorials.

· Discuss topics with your teachers and other students. Explain new ideas to other people.

· Remember interesting spoken examples, stories, jokes…

You may have to present information in a written format. For those occasions, practice:

· Recalling what was said and what you heard.

· Turning your recordings into written words.

· Explaining your own ideas in written form.

· Imagine talking with the examiner.

· Listen to your “voices” and write them down.

· Spend time in quiet places recalling the ideas.

· Practice writing answers to old assessment questions.

In the Workplace:
· Get your questions answered by consultants, facilitators and leaders who have genuine authority.

· Participate in discussion sessions, whether workshops, meetings, training or information sharing. Turn up to coffee breaks and water-cooler conversations.

· Seek online talk about your area of expertise – podcasts and other oral sessions.

· Attend live training sessions where you can present any findings and report back orally.

· Read any written notes out loud and allow for colleagues’ questions and re-statements.

· Respect others views by allowing them to speak first. Sometimes silence is best – somebody else may say it better than what you were going to say.

Your Quote: “Those who speak well hold the key to leadership.”

Your Style: You prefer to have this page explained to you. The written words are not as valuable as those you hear. You will probably go and tell somebody about this.

Your Leadership: is based on meetings, discussion and emailed or phoned instructions. “Let’s exchange some ideas and work towards a shared understanding of the issues.”

Feedback: is based on discussions and a chance to collect oral feedback or make your case as well as to listen, question and respond.


Read/Write Strategies
Key words:
lists, notes, handouts, print, and text in all its formats and whether on screens or on paper.

This preference uses the printed word as the most important way to convey and receive information.

People with a Read/Write preference prefer:
· to write and read. They like words that have interesting meanings and backgrounds.

· to use lists (a, b, c, d, and 1, 2, 3, 4) and to order things into categories.

· to arrange words into hierarchies and points; order and structure in anything presented

· extracting meanings from headings and titles

· correcting mistakes

· clarity in what has been written

· challenging rules and regulations because of their wording

· people who write or speak using challenging words

To take in information:
· use lists (like this one!)

· use titles and headings that clearly explain what follows

· use bullet points and numbered paragraphs

· use dictionaries and glossaries, articles about trends in word usage

· spell-check; correct written language errors

· read handouts

· read books that are dense with text, essays, manuals, reading lists

· use definitions, constitutions, legal documents, minutes and rules

· write notes (often verbatim)

· get information from people who use words well and have lots of information in their sentences

· as you listen, sort out what they are saying into your own categories and lists

To present information to others:
· Order things into priorities of importance, or categories, or schemas…

· Contribute in print to a variety of print media

· Rewrite any ideas and principles in your own words

· Be aware that others may not have a Read/Write preference like you, so respect their differences.

In education:
· Convert your “notes” into a learnable package by reducing them from three pages down to one page.

· Write out the words again and again.

· Read your notes (silently) again and again.

· Do any “extra” suggested reading

· Organize any diagrams, graphs … into statements, e.g. “This graph shows that the trend is…”

· Use a digital device to arrange your ideas and to “try” different words.

· Imagine your lists arranged in multiple choice questions and distinguish each from each.

In the workplace:
· Use SWOT analyses showing Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.

· Use Risk analyses

· Strategic and management plans e.g. management by objectives (MBO), especially written ones.

· Write out your words for others to read, use handouts, noticeboards, and post-its.

· Read carefully what others have written

· Watch and read new material appearing on noticeboards – in the workplace, office, and online.

· Have current business news running on your computer

· Quote from business magazines and journals

· Write lists of tasks and carefully record important print information.

· Find out the preferences of others and deliver in their preferred modes.

Your Quote: “If it is not in print, it may not exist.”

Your Style: You like this page because the emphasis is on words and it is arranged into lists. You believe the meanings are within the words, and that people need to be careful when using words.

Your Leadership: is based on bullet point listing of actions and a full description of outcomes. “This document outlines our plans for implementing strategies that will achieve our objectives.”

Feedback: is based on written comments and a table of figures showing detailed results.

Multimodal Strategies
If you have multiple preferences you are in the majority as somewhere between fifty and seventy percent of any population seems to fit into that group.

Multiple preferences are interesting and quite varied. For example you may have two strong preferences V and A or R and K, or you may have three strong preferences such as VAR or ARK. Some people have no particular strong preferences and their scores are almost even for all four modes. For example one student had scores of V=9, A=9, R=9, and K=9. She said that she adapted to the mode being used or requested. If the teacher or supervisor preferred a written mode she switched into that mode for her responses and for her learning.

So multiple preferences give you choices of two or three or four modes to use for your interaction with others. Some people have admitted that if they want to be annoying they stay in a mode different from the person with whom they are working. For example they may ask for written evidence in an argument, knowing that the other person much prefers to refer only to oral information. Or they may ask for “concrete’ examples knowing that the other person has a low preference for kinesthetic input and output. These are what some people do when they feel negative. Positive reactions mean that those with multimodal preferences choose to match or align their mode to the significant others around them.

The 13 Multimodal preferences are made from the various combinations of the four preferences below. You will need to view more than one of those lists. For example, if your VARK Profile is the bimodal combination of Visual and Kinesthetic (VK), you will need to use those two lists of strategies below. If your VARK Profile is the trimodal combination of Aural, Read/write and Kinesthetic (ARK) you will need to use those three lists of strategies below.

· Visual Strategies

· Aural Strategies

· Read/Write Strategies

· Kinesthetic Strategies

Some people with multimodal preferences have told us find it necessary for them to use more than one strategy for learning and communicating. They feel insecure with only one. Others are able to “get it” using just one of their preferred modalities.

Understanding the Results
The power of VARK is that people understand it intuitively and it fits practice. In VARK workshops participants say, “Yes! That’s me.”

The VARK results indicate a ‘rule of thumb’ and should not be rigidly applied. The questionnaire is not intended to ‘box’ you into a mindset that you have been ‘diagnosed’. Rather, it is designed to initiate discussion about, and reflection upon, your learning style – metacognition.

Your VARK results indicate preferences not strengths. Some people with a zero score in their VARK profile for Visual, enjoy relaxing by drawing or painting or visiting art galleries!

You should take advantage of your preferences and use the learning strategies listed in the VARK Helpsheets provided on this website. These can be used to investigate preferences and to explore your own views about whether the preference is accurate and helpful. For example, if you have an Aural preference, you could ask yourself:

· How important is discussion in your life?

· Are listening, speaking and asking questions important ways for you to learn?

· Do you consider yourself an Aural person?

· Are there aspects of your life where your Aural preference is obvious?

· Are there aspects of your life where your Aural preference is less important?

· Are there aspects of your life where your Aural preference is really important?

If you have a multimodal set of VARK preferences, you may need to process information in more than one mode in order to get a thorough and satisfying understanding. If this is the case, you should try new study strategies listed under your multiple preferences in the Helpsheets. Our experience is that many people become much more successful if they develop a range of learning strategies based upon their preferences. It is clearly not helpful to use strategies that are outside your preferences (e.g. using mind-maps may not help if you are strongly Kinesthetic. Mnemonics may not help if you have a low Read/write score and PowerPoints may not be at all Visual if it places only words on the screen.)

Pay particular attention to zero scores on any mode and even more attention to them if the total number of responses is high. Zero scores in a profile are unusual and the person will often have an interesting story to tell. Zero does not mean they cannot use the strategies associated with that mode, only that it is not their preferred method of study.


· Preferences are not the same as strengths.

· VARK is about learning not leisure.

· If you have completed the questionnaire with empathy you will have indicated the preferences of others – not your own learning preferences. Go back and do it for yourself.

· Your VARK scores indicate how you prefer to learn. The four scores may not indicate how you teach, train, or work with others!

· Preferences may be masked by life and work experiences.

Work and life experiences may blur the boundaries as people learn new ways to use Aural, Visual, Read/write and Kinesthetic modes equally well.


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